5 Traditional Houses of the Dayak Tribe and Dayak Culture in Kalimantan

Traditional House of the Dayak Tribe – The Dayak tribe or from the old spelling Dajak or Dayak is a tribe or ethnic group that inhabits a hinterland of the island of Borneo. The word “daya” itself means a cognate with the word “raya” in the name “Toraya” and means “people (above) above, people upstream”.

Based on archaeological evidence found in the Niah Caves in Sarawak and Babi Cave in South Kalimantan, the first inhabitants of Kalimantan themselves have Austro-Melanesian characteristics with a larger proportion of skeletal bones when compared to the inhabitants of present-day Kalimantan and inhabit the island of Borneo. including Brunei, Malaysia which consists of Sabah and Sarawak, and Indonesia which consists of West Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan.

There are 3 main tribes or 5 native tribes of Kalimantan which are Malay, Dayak, Banjar, Kutai and Tidung.

According to the 2010 census of the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Indonesia, the ethnic groups found in Indonesian Borneo are then grouped into 3 main tribes, namely the Indonesian Dayak tribe (268 sub-ethnic/sub-tribe groups in Indonesia), the Malay ethnic group, and other ethnic groups from Kalimantan, namely the non Dayak and non Malay.

In the past, the culture of the Dayak people was a maritime or maritime culture. Almost all the nicknames of the Dayak people then have the meaning as something related to “pelhulan” or river, especially in the names of the families and their family names.

Some divide the Dayak people into six clans, namely the Klemantan or Kalimantan clan, the Iban clan, the Apokayan or Dayak Kayan, Kenyah and Bahau clans, the Murut clan, the Ot Danum-Ngaju clan and the Punan clan.

But scientifically, linguists then saw 5 groups of languages ​​spoken on the island of Borneo and each of which has relatives outside the island of Borneo:

  • “Barito Raya” (in which there are 33 languages, including 11 languages ​​from the Madagascar language group, and Sama-Bajau including the Dayak Paser Tribe.
  • “Dayak Darat” (in which there are 13 languages), including the Rejang language in Bengkulu.
  • “North Borneo” (in which there are 99 languages), including the Yakan language in the Philippines as well as a tribe that stands with its own tribal name, namely the Tidung Tribe. “Sulawesi” and is spoken by 3 Dayak tribes in the interior of West Kalimantan, including Taman Dayak, Embaloh Dayak, and Kalis Dayak who are also called the Banuaka Dayak family.

Several tribes from Kalimantan and then have Malay traditions related to this family as separate and independent tribes or the Malay tribe itself, namely the Banjar Tribe, Sambas Malay Tribe, Kutai Tribe, Berau Malay Tribe, and Kedayan Malay Tribe.

Traditional house of the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan

There are many traditional houses in Indonesia with a variety of different models and their own uniqueness, making each region a must visit because of this diversity.

Central Kalimantan itself is one of the areas with beautiful scenery, complete with interesting tribes and cultures to learn about.

So that you can recognize the traditional houses of Central Kalimantan, here is a more complete explanation of the traditional houses in Kalimantan.

1. Traditional Betang House, Typical of Central Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan with a capital city named Palangkaraya City and dominated by three dominant ethnicities living in the area. The three dominant ethnic groups living in Kalimantan include the Dayak, Javanese and Banjar ethnic groups.

One of the traditional houses in Central Kalimantan is the Betang traditional house. This traditional house itself is inhabited by the Dayak people, especially in the upstream area of ​​the river with the main settlement for the Dayak people.

This traditional house itself has a shape like a stilt house and is made elongated. There are several Betang houses that are made up to 150 meters long and up to 30 meters wide. This large house is then generally inhabited by many residents, at least there are at least 100 people in one house.

The Batang traditional house can also be said to be one of the largest tribal houses because in it there is also a large family as the main occupant and it is led by a chief named Pam Bakas Lewu.

This Betang traditional house also has its own meaning, which is to become a concrete and complete statement about village governance, the population system and can become a central point for all the lives of the people who live and are in it.

See also  difference between brad nailer and finish nailer

This traditional house is also not a luxurious residence, but a simple residence so that people can then live in peace and live normally. In this Betang house there are also several important aspects, as below:

  • The residential aspect is a permanent multi-family structure that lives together in it.
  • Legal aspect because it has a clear ownership aspect. This house is also jointly owned by all the families to control all the land in the Betang house area.
  • The economic aspect is because the Betang house also has a very important role in the distribution of power flows and the distribution of results between the families in it. Betang Traditional House which is

The Central Kalimantan Traditional House itself uses ironwood as the main building material because it is known to be sturdy and strong.

2. Betang Muara Mea House

Betang Muara Mea houses are generally located in a village called Muara Mea. One of the Betang traditional houses in Central Kalimantan is the Betang Muara Mea traditional house.

The Muara Mea house itself has a modern look because the walls of the Muara Mea house have been painted and painted to make it more attractive and beautiful to look at.

The paintings and pictures that are on the walls of this traditional house are then also made as one of the very distinctive identities of the Dayak people.

The Muara Mea traditional house is also somewhat more modern because it was built as a way for the government to preserve traditional houses and culture in Muara Mea Village.

3. Betang Damang Batu House

The Dayak people themselves are also very concerned about the beauty of the surrounding environment. The Dayak people often maintain the beauty of their surroundings. The Central Kalimantan traditional house located in Tumbang Anoi Village is a Betang Damang Batu house. Betang Damang Batu, which is located in Tumbang Anoi Village, has a very long and valuable historical value.

It was in this area that a witness later occurred because it was used as a gathering place for all the Dayak chiefs in Kalimantan. This house is also often used as a place to carry out peace agreements. Its uniqueness and characteristics are in its very old age because it has been built since 1868 and makes it the oldest traditional house in the Central Kalimantan area.

This house was also built facing the Kahayan river and has a very beautiful view. In its history there are many who say that this traditional house was later built by Temanggung Rujan and came from the Tewah area.

4. Betang Pasir Panjang House

The Betang Pasir Panjang house is a traditional house that you can find in the West Kotawaringin area. Pangkalan Bun itself is the capital of West Kotawaringin Regency and has a term or nickname as Sweet City with an extension of Minat Aman Nikmat Indah Segar.

There are lots of interesting tourist destinations that you can find in this area, one of which is Tanjung Puting National Park. Kotawaringin Barat is also one of the areas most inhabited by the Dayak people and is one of the people who also lives in the Betang Pasir Panjang traditional house.

Until now this traditional house is also still inhabited to be able to maintain its sustainability. Architecturally, the Betang Pasir Panjang house is larger in size with a soaring roof.

The entrance to the Betang Pasir Panjang house is also on the side and not on the elongated side like traditional houses in general. Because of its large size, the foundation and the wooden support structure also look sturdier to support the entire heavy building.

5. Toyoi’s Betang House

The Betang Toyoi traditional house is taken from the name that comes from the person who built this traditional house, namely Toyoi Panji. This house is also located in Rumbang Malahoi Village and until now it is still unknown when it was first built.

Apart from functioning as a place to live, the betang also functions as a living area in a pluralistic way that respects the different beliefs of the neighbors in it.

In Betang Toyoi, people also learn to respect the harmony between different religions. The Betang Toyoi traditional house was built using durable ironwood. One of the advantages of ironwood is that it can last for hundreds of years.

This traditional house is also made not using wood at all but has high resistance to various disasters that may come such as an earthquake. This house is also still standing strong even though it is inhabited by more than 10 families in it.

The pillars in the Betang Toyoi traditional house have a square shape that looks very unique. Even so, this house was built without the use of advanced technology, its own uniqueness can be seen in every corner of the area.

See also  difference between profession and occupation

6. Lamin House

Rumah Lamin is a traditional house of the Dayak Kenyah tribe with an elongated shape and a stilt type. With a length of up to 200 meters and a distance of about 3 meters under the house, this house is also inhabited by several families who are then separated by their respective rooms. The front of the lamin house is also used to receive guests and functions as a place for various traditional ceremonies, while at the back it contains very large rooms.

The lamin house is also supported by large pillars with carved motifs typical of the Dayak tribe to ward off evil spirits. The floor of this house also consists of a number of wooden beams which are then neatly arranged with an entrance from the side connected by stairs.

Related Books

1. Credit Union: Symphony in the Land of the Dayak

Symphony in Tanah Dayak, a novel which tells about the struggle of a CU activist named Dubit. The ups and downs of poverty are experienced by many Dayak youths in the past and even now. He devoted his whole life to an ideal of advancing his people-Dayaks.

Dubit comes from Mutas, a village located deep in the interior of West Kalimantan. Because his parents were poor and less than harmonious, he was raised by his mother who was a role model and the candlelight of his life.

His desire to go to school seemed unstoppable. The encouragement of her mother’s words and messages made her never lose her enthusiasm to keep going. He finally graduated to become a scholar witnessed by his mother who always guided him.

Because of his bitter past and not expecting the next generation to experience the same thing, Dubit devoted his whole body and soul to advancing CU. He considered it a noble choice of devotion.

The Dayak people, the native tribe of the land of Kalimantan, which used to be called Borneo, are still far behind from various factors. Who is wrong? But what is clear is that it is not a curse. Perhaps, the Dayaks still haven’t done much.

2. The life of the Iban Dayak in the interior of West Kalimantan

The Dayak tribe has hundreds of sub-tribes spread across the island of Borneo. They used to live sedentary because of the limited carrying capacity of nature so that some lived in the interior of the forest.

Each sub-tribe has its own culture and uniqueness that differs from other Dayak sub-tribes. In West Kalimantan, there are around 186 Dayak sub-tribes, one of which is the Iban Dayak.

3. Dayak women for Indonesia

The combination of tradition and adaptation to the times is reflected strongly in Nyeong Simon’s daily appearance. A traditional Dayak woman, but looks and wears a modern fashion with her own fashions and designs.

The whole story of Nyelong’s life is the story of a traditional Dayak woman, who is attached to all traditional Dayak ceremonies and traditions. All of his life and activities cannot be separated from the contents of traditional ceremonies, with medicines, with food, with traditional Dayak ingredients.

Nyelong’s life is full of Dayak traditional traditions, both in the birth of children, marriages, deaths, the transfer of ancestral bones, as well as traditional herbal ingredients with roots and leaves which are picked and boiled according to the Dayak customary system.

For him, the traditions of the Dayak people are everything that shapes his existence and self-image as a Dayak. On the other hand, Nyelong is an academic, a student activist who educates and encourages students—especially Dayak children—to progress, to master modern science and technology.

Science and technology should not be rejected, on the contrary must be seized. However, what is unique to Nyelong is that cultural traditions and modern science must be combined to shape a person’s personality and character, especially the Dayak people.

Knowledge makes the Dayak people progress, but tradition should not be abandoned, because the Dayak tradition is a way of life, a guide for life that will protect wherever it takes place. Just as Pangkalima Dayak who has the wisdom to protect themselves from various bad intentions, Nyelong always equips himself and his children with Dayak traditions and wisdom, even though they go to school as high as possible and take part in any position.

4. At the Longhouse-The Life Struggle and Love of the Dayak Iban People

The expression of the deepest human feelings. A collection of daily life stories that reflect the worldview of a Borneo ethnic group from an insider’s perspective. Something that offers life values ​​that may be very different from what those who live in big cities know and live by.

That is the variety of traditional Dayak houses that we need to know about and preserve. Sinaumed’s can also read books related to Dayak or Kalimantan customs by visiting sinaumedia.com . sinaumedia always provides the best products so you have #MoreWithReading information.