Understanding Multiculturalism
Understanding Multiculturalism

Understanding Multiculturalism

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Indonesia is country that has a variety of cultures or a multicultural country. What does multiculturalism actually mean?

This article will discuss more about multiculturalism. So watch and pay close attention.

Understanding Multiculturalism in General

Multiculturalism comes from English, namely from the words multi and cultural.

Multi means many or more than one while cultural means culture. So multicultural is a culture that has many or more than one.

While the term multiculturalism is a term used to describe a person’s view of the variety of life in the world.

Multiculturalism can also be referred to as a cultural policy that emphasizes acceptance of the diversity and various kinds of cultures (multicultural) that exist in people’s lives.

The culture concerns the values, norms, systems, culture, habits, customs, and politics adopted by them.

Understanding Multiculturalism According to Experts

Experts express their opinions regarding the meaning of multiculturalism, including the following:

1. Lawrence Blum

Multiculturalism is something that includes understanding, appreciating, and appraising one’s culture, as well as respect and curiosity about the ethnic culture of other people.

2. Azyumardi Azra

Multiculturalism is a world view that can be translated into various cultural policies.

The cultural policy emphasizes the acceptance of the reality of religious plurality and multiculturalism in the life of a society.

Multiculturalism can also be understood as a world view which is then manifested in political consciousness.

3. Parekh

Multiculturalism is an agreement that exists in society that is carried out to anticipate social conflicts through cooperation.

The agreement itself was made because of the opportunity for various differences, such as habits and customs.

4. Nasikun

Multiculturalism is a condition of a pluralistic society which structurally has sub-cultures which are characterized by a lack of development of the value system, resulting in various conflicts.

5. Rifai Harahap

Multiculturalism is a community unit that is characterized by the merging of various forms of difference to be able to live together.

By living together that has been planned, it is expected to be able to handle the impact of social phenomena such as conflicts that still often occur in the community.

Types of Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is divided into 5 types, namely:

1.  Accommodative Multiculturalism

This accommodative multiculturalism includes people who have a dominant culture that makes certain adjustments and accommodations for the cultural needs of minorities.

The community here formulates and applies culturally sensitive laws, statutes, and provisions.

Society also gives freedom to minorities to maintain and develop their culture.

On the other hand, minorities do not challenge the dominant culture.

This accommodative multiculturalism is applied in several countries in Europe.

2.  Autonomous Multiculturalism

Autonomous multiculturalism includes a plural society in which the main cultural groups seek to achieve equality.

They challenge the dominant group and seek to create a society in which all groups can exist on an equal footing.

3.  Interactive or Critical Multiculturalism

Interactive or critical multiculturalism includes a plural society where cultural groups are not too focused or concerned with autonomous cultural life.

They rather form a collective creation that reflects and affirms their own distinctive perspectives.

4.  Isolationist Multiculturalism

Isolationist multiculturalism refers to a society in which various cultural groups live autonomously and engage in minimal interaction with one another.

5. Cosmopolitan Multiculturalism

This cosmopolitan multiculturalism includes efforts to eliminate cultural boundaries to create a society that is no longer bound to a particular culture.

And conversely, freely involved in intercultural experiments and at the same time develop their own cultural life.

Elements of Multiculturalism

here are several elements of multiculturalism, especially in Indonesia. The following are the elements of multiculturalism in Indonesia:

  1. Tribes; ethnic groups in Indonesia are very diverse, ranging from Sabang to Merauke.
  2. Race; Race in Indonesia arises because of the large grouping of humans who have biological characteristics, such as hair color, skin color, body size, and so on.
  3. Religion and Belief; Religion and belief in Indonesia is quite diverse, ranging from Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, to Kong Hu Cu.
  4. Ideology; ideology has a strong influence on behavior.
  5. Political; Politics is an attempt to enforce social order.
  6. Manners; Manners are all actions, behaviors, customs, manners, greetings, words and abilities in accordance with certain rules and norms.
  7. Social gap; there is a classification of people based on caste.
  8. Economic Gap; There are differences in income between people.

Characteristics of Multiculturalism

The characteristics of a multicultural society are as follows:

  1. Experiencing segmentation in groups with different sub-cultures.
  2. Has a social structure that is divided into non-complementary institutions.
  3. Low consensus among institutional members.
  4. There are relatively frequent conflicts and debates.
  5. Integration tends to occur by coercion.
  6. There is political dominance over other groups.

The Cause of Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism happens for a reason. Here are some of the reasons for the occurrence of multiculturalism:

  1. Geographical factors; In an area that has different geographical conditions, there will definitely be differences in the community.
  2. climatic factors;  In an area that has different climatic conditions, there will definitely be differences in the community.
  3. Foreign cultural influences; people who already know foreign cultures are likely to be affected by these foreign cultural habits.

Multiculturalism Concept

The concept of multiculturalism is a world view that is ultimately implemented in policy.

The policy is about the willingness to accept other groups equally as a unit, regardless of differences in culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or religion.

See also  Definition of Cultural Change

Forms of Multicultural Society

The form of multicultural society is divided into 5 forms, namely:

1. Primordialism

Primordialism is a view or understanding that holds fast to various things that have existed since childhood.

This view can be in the form of beliefs, traditions, customs, or everything that is in the first environment of an individual’s life.

Primordialism has a function to preserve the culture of the group.

However, this primordialism can also make an individual or group have an ethnocentrism attitude.

Ethnocentrism is an attitude that tends to be subjective in viewing other people’s cultures.

They will find it difficult to accept other understandings other than the understanding they have brought since childhood.

So primordialism can be interpreted with an ingrained belief.

2. Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the assumption of a social group that their group is the most superior compared to other groups.

They will find it difficult to accept other understandings other than the understanding they have brought since childhood (primordialism).

So ethnocentrism can be interpreted with an assumption from social groups that their group is the most superior compared to other groups.

3. Intersection

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Intersection is a meeting or intersection which is known as a plural ethnic group in sociology.

Intersection is also a meeting or crossing membership of a social group from various sections.

Whether in the form of ethnicity, religion, social class, gender, and so on in a pluralistic society in sociology.

This intersection will be formed through social interaction or intensive association of its members.

This social interaction will be formed through the means of association in human culture, including language, art, means of transportation, markets, schools, and so on.

So intersection can be interpreted as a society consisting of many tribes, cultures, religions, races, and others that blend into one unit in a particular community.

4. Consolidation

Consolidation is a process of strengthening thoughts on beliefs that have been believed to be getting stronger.

Consolidation is also a strengthening process carried out to provide additional faith for someone on what someone already believes.

So consolidation can be interpreted with a strengthening of what has been attached to him.

5. Stream Politics

Stream politics is a group of people who are incorporated into mass organizations that have a unifying force.

The unifier can be in the form of political parties within a country.

Political flow is also a community organization that is used to maintain and prosper members of the community.

So political flow can be interpreted as a political party that has the support of community organizations as a power builder in general elections.

Difference between Multiculturalism and Pluralism

There are several differences between multiculturalism and pluralism, including the following:

1. First

Multiculturalism is an ideology that glorifies cultural differences or a belief that recognizes cultural pluralism as a way of life for people.

While pluralism is an ideology that provides a comfortable space for the paradigm of difference as one of the fundamental entities of a human being.

2. Second

Multiculturalism is an understanding that requires people to live in tolerance, mutual understanding between cultures and between nations in building a new world.

While pluralism is an understanding that recognizes the differences between ethnic groups, religions, cultures, and so on.

3. Third

Multiculturalism is an understanding which states that a society should consist of many different cultural groups in the same social status, or at least allow these different cultural groups to live in one area.

While pluralism is an understanding which holds that people of different races, religions, and political beliefs can live peacefully in the same society.

4. Fourth

Multiculturalism only accepts cultural differences and does not study other cultures or explore other cultures

While pluralism accepts the existence of other cultural differences and studies other cultures that are useful for avoiding conflicts.

Also read: Understanding Culture

Factors of Multicultural Society in Indonesia

There are several factors of multicultural society in Indonesia, including the following:

1. Geographical Factor

The geographical location of Indonesia, which is between 2 continents and 2 oceans, has resulted in Indonesia being visited by many ethnic groups from all over the world.

With this geographical location, Indonesia is also used as an international trade route.

Thus many foreign countries come to Indonesia with the aim of trading, such as Arab, Indian, Chinese, and others.

This is what adds to the entry of foreign cultures into Indonesia and the creation of a multicultural society.

2. Climate Factor

Due to the different climate in Indonesia, the pattern of livelihood, social order, livelihoods, and types of people are also different.

For example, people who live in urban areas, the majority of people will work in offices or companies.

While people who live on the coast, the majority of people will work as fishermen or fish traders.

3. Indonesian History Factors

This historical factor in Indonesia is a factor where other countries want to have what Indonesia produces, such as spices.

So many foreign countries colonized Indonesia, such as Japan, the Netherlands, England, and Portugal.

Members of these countries stay long enough in Indonesia and some even marry members of the Indonesian state.

See also  Conflict Theory According to Lewis A Coser's Perspective

This is what adds to the richness of culture and race in Indonesia.

4. Ethnic and Cultural Factors

Indonesia has very diverse ethnic groups and cultures. This can make the community become multicultural.

These ethnic groups and cultures can be in the form of:

  • Local language
  • Folk songs
  • Regional dance
  • Regional art
  • Regional specialties
  • Customs
  • Traditional clothes
  • Custom home
  • Musical instrument
  • Traditional weapon

5. Race Factor

There are 3 races in Indonesia that make society multicultural, namely:

  • The Mongoloid race, with the characteristics of a brown skin color, a little body hair, straight hair, and slanted eyes.
  • Negroid race, with characteristics of black skin color, curly hair, thick lips, and straight eyelids.
  • Caucasoid race, with the characteristics of white skin color, blond to brown hair color, pointed nose, and straight eyelids.

6. Physical and Geological Factors

Indonesia’s geological structure is located between 3 different plates, namely Asia, Australia and the Pacific.

This makes Indonesia an archipelagic country that has several geological types, such as the Asiatic type, the transitional type, and the Australis type.

Thus, the life of the people of each island will be different according to the conditions of the island.

For example, people living on small islands will experience difficulties with natural resources.

While people who are on the big island they have a lot of natural resources.

This is what makes the culture of each island different.

7. Factors of Religion and Belief

Religion and belief in Indonesia is also a factor in a multicultural society.

The reason is that religions and beliefs in Indonesia are quite diverse, ranging from Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, to Kong hu cu.

Examples of Multiculturalism

There are many examples of multiculturalism, including the following:

  1. Respect interfaith.
  2. Attending invitations from other ethnic groups other than the tribes they believe in.
  3. Balinese people who can accept culture from other regions.
  4. Do not offend each other’s beliefs held by other communities.
  5. Does not mention the characteristics of the race owned by friends.
  6. It is not allowed to use loudspeakers when calling the call to prayer.
  7. Anti-discrimination regulations in the use of public facilities.
  8. They mingle with one another regardless of the background of people who share the same vision and mission as us.
  9. There is a prohibition in holding worship due to the disturbing sound.
  10. Holding mutual cooperation activities every Sunday to maintain the cleanliness and preservation of the living environment.

Conclusion

From the above explanation about the notion of multiculturalism, you must know that multiculturalism in Indonesia is very diverse.

Although there are many definitions of multicultural, basically multicultural has the meaning of diverse cultures.

These cultures coexist with each other, live in peace even though sometimes there are conflicts.

So as a good Indonesian society, you must be able to accept the cultural diversity that exists in Indonesia.

Thus, we can convey about the meaning, types, elements, characteristics, causes, concepts, forms of society, factors, and examples of multiculturalism.

Hopefully with this article you can understand what multiculturalism is and apply it in everyday life. Thank you

Question and answer

What is the meaning of multiculturalism?
Multiculturalism is a term used to describe a person’s view of the variety of life in the world.
Multiculturalism can also be referred to as a cultural policy that emphasizes acceptance of the diversity and various kinds of cultures (multicultural) that exist in people’s lives.
The culture concerns the values, norms, systems, culture, habits, customs, and politics adopted by them.
Mention 5 types of multiculturalism!
Accommodative
Multiculturalism Autonomous
Multiculturalism Interactive or Critical
Multiculturalism Isolationist
Multiculturalism Cosmopolitan
What are the elements of multiculturalism?
Ethnicity
Race
Religion and Beliefs
Ideology
Politics
Manners
Social
Disparities Economic Gaps
What are the characteristics of a multicultural society?
Experiencing segmentation in groups with different sub-cultures.
Has a social structure that is divided into non-complementary institutions.
Low consensus among institutional members.
There are relatively frequent conflicts and debates.
Integration tends to occur by coercion.
There is political dominance over other groups.
What are the causes of multiculturalism?
Geographical
factors Climatic factors
Foreign cultural influences
Mention 5 forms of multicultural society!
Primordialism
Ethnocentrism
Intersection
Consolidation
Political Stream
What are the factors of multicultural society in Indonesia?
Geographic
Factors Climate
Factors Indonesian History
Factors Ethnic and Cultural
Factors Race
Factors Physical and Geological
Factors Religion and Belief Factors
Mention some examples of multiculturalism that you know!
Respect interfaith.
Attending invitations from other ethnic groups other than the tribes they believe in.
Balinese people who can accept culture from other regions.
Do not offend each other’s beliefs held by other communities.
Does not mention the characteristics of the race owned by friends.
It is not allowed to use loudspeakers when calling the call to prayer.
Anti-discrimination regulations in the use of public facilities.
They mingle with one another regardless of the background of people who share the same vision and mission as us.
There is a prohibition in holding worship due to the disturbing sound.
Holding mutual cooperation activities every Sunday to maintain the cleanliness and preservation of the living environment.

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