What is the meaning of public policy? Public policy is something that is already familiar to hear. Either in a particular field or in the general public.
The following is a brief explanation regarding the 15 notions of public policy conveyed by experts. In addition, it will also explain important elements, scope, level of policy and policy objectives.
Definition of Public Policy
In general, a policy or policy is something that is used to show a person’s behavior. In this case, the person in question could be an official, an institution, or even a certain group. The goal is to solve a problem that is being faced by them.
Basically, there are many explanations accompanied by limitations or understanding of other policies. Policy is a guideline and restrictions that are carried out in general.
Limits that become the direction of an action that must be done. As well as a rule that must be followed by the perpetrators. Also implementing policies, because it is very important for processing within an organization.
As well as making decisions from a plan that has been made and mutually agreed upon. Therefore, policy becomes a means of solving problems for various actions that occur.
Policy is a series of concepts and principles that outline the basis of a problem. Being a plan in the implementation of a job, leadership and ways of acting, principles, statements of ideals and in solving problems as guidelines. Policies are also used for management in an effort to achieve goals or objectives. In other words, policy is a guide in acting for making a decision.
In terms of terminology, the notion of public policy has many meanings. It all depends on the angle from which one interprets it. Public policy is an authority that belongs to the government.
This authority is carried out to carry out its duties and functions in relation to the community. Not only with the community, but this authority is also carried out in relation to the business world.
Basically, government policies in managing people’s lives in many aspects of life are policies that are oriented to the interests of the community itself. in every public policy, will begin with the formulation of the problem.
The formulation of the problem occurs in society. The term or understanding of public policy will be aimed at overcoming problems, if they occur in society. In fact, the term or understanding of public policy has often been heard.
Examples in everyday life. In addition, in academic activities it is also often mentioned. As in lectures in the fields of social sciences, political science, economics to law.
However, this term may also refer to something more specific. The scope of this public policy study is very broad. Because, this covers various sectors and fields.
Examples include politics, economics, culture, social, law, and so on. In addition, judging from the hierarchy, public policy has several characteristics. Such as local, regional and national.
It can also be said as government regulations, laws, ministerial regulations, presidential regulations, regional or provincial government regulations, district or city regional regulations, governor decisions, and regent or mayor decisions.
Definition of Public Policy According to Experts
1. A. Hoogerwert
The definition of public policy according to A. Hoogerwert is an important element in the political field. Public policy can also be interpreted as achieving certain goals, which are carried out at a certain time.
According to Anderson, the notion of public policy is a relationship between government units and their environment.
The definition of public policy was also conveyed by Gerston. According to him, public policy is an effort made by the government or officials. These efforts are carried out at every level of government which aims to solve public problems.
The process of determining a public policy includes five stages. Are as follows:
- Identify a public policy issue.
- Develop public policy proposals.
- Do public policy advocacy.
- Implement public policy.
- Evaluate the policies to be implemented.
Public policy is a complex pattern. This pattern is based on collective choices that are interdependent. Conducted by government agencies and institutions.
5. Pressman and Wildavsky
The definition of public policy is defined as a hypothesis. The hypothesis contains initial conditions and predictable outcomes. Public policy must be distinguished from other forms of policy, for example, such as private policy. It is influenced by the involvement of factors, not the government.
6. Leo Agustino (2008: 6)
Leo Agustino defines the notion of public policy as a relationship that occurs between government units and their environment. Many people think that this definition is too broad. Especially to understand, because what is meant by public policy can cover many things.
The definition of public policy is a number or several government activities carried out to solve a problem that exists in society. Either directly or through several institutions that have influence in people’s lives.
8. Thomas R Dye
Public policy is ” whatever government chooses to do or not to do ” or which means “whatever the government chooses to do or not do”. This understanding emphasizes that public policy is a matter of embodiment or action. Public policy is not merely a statement of the will of officials or the government.
Besides that, the government’s choice not to do something is also public policy. Because, it has the same effect or impact as the government’s choice to do something.
9. Chandler and Plano
The definition of public policy mentioned by Chandler and Plano is a strategic utilization of existing resources. The goal is to solve problems that exist in the public or government. Public policy is also a form of intervention that is carried out continuously by the government.
This was done in the interest of disadvantaged groups in society. So they can stay alive. As well as participate in public development at large.
10. Roberty Eyestone (1971: 18)
The broad definition of public policy can be said to be “the relationship between a government unit and its environment”. This concept contains a very broad understanding of public policy. And less certain, because what is meant by public policy can cover many things.
11. Charles Lindblom (1968)
Public policy making is essentially a political process that is very complex and analytical. Where do not know when it starts or ends. As well as the boundaries of that process are uncertain.
A series of rather complex forces that are often referred to as public policy making. Then it will produce a result called a policy.
12. Muhlis Madani (2011)
Muhlis Madani explained that policy is a complex phenomenon. The phenomenon consists of a number of decisions made by a number or several individuals. In addition, it is also made by existing government organizations.
The definition of public policy according to Kartasasmita is an effort to understand and interpret what is done or not done by the government. Regarding a problem, what is the cause of the problem and what is the effect of the problem.
14. Widodo (2002: 190)
According to Widodo, in practice good public policy must contain several elements. These elements are as follows:
- A policy always has a goal or is oriented towards a certain goal.
- A policy will contain the actions or patterns of action of government officials.
- A policy is what a government official actually does. Not something to be done.
- A public policy will be positive or “is the government on a particular issue”. Also negative or “a decision of a government official not to take a certain action”.
- Positive public policies are always based on certain laws and regulations. These regulations are coercive or authoritative.
15. Said Zainal Abidin (2004: 23)
The definition of public policy is something that is not narrow and specific. However, it is strategic and broad. Therefore, public policy has a function as a general policy guideline. As well as having a special decision under it.
Scope of Public Policy
The scope of public policy is as follows:
- The study of bureaucratic behavior and political elites.
- The role of interest groups in the policy process
- Shared Concern and shared problems between political actors involved in the process of making, implementing and evaluating a policy.
Important Elements of Public Policy
Inputs are things that affect public policy. Examples such as humans who act as actors, knowledge, technology, information, and all the values that apply in society.
2. Goals _
Goals are the direction of a policy that those who make the policy want to achieve.
3. Instruments _
A device is a device used to execute a policy.
Impact is the result obtained from a policy. Either wanted or unwanted.
These four main elements will be the basis. This element will determine what form of public policy will be implemented.
Public Policy Levels
1. General policy (strategy)
The general policy level is the policy level whose scope is an outline of macro-strategic issues. Use it to achieve the national ideal. Both in a certain situation or condition.
The result can take the following form:
- Laws/laws, the power to make which lies in the hands of the president with the approval of the DPR, or government regulations in lieu of laws/perpu in matters of compelling urgency
- Government Regulations/PPs to regulate the implementation of laws, whose issuance authority rests with the president
- Presidential Decree/Keppres or Presidential Instruction/Inpres, which contains government administration policies whose issuance authority is in the hands of the president
- Presidential Decree, under certain circumstances the president can issue a Presidential Decree.
2. Managerial policy
Managerial policy is an outline of a main area or major area of government. This policy is an elaboration of general policy. The point is to formulate strategy and public administration.
As well as procedures in these key areas. Managerial policy authority rests with the minister. It is based on policies at the level above. The results will be formulated in several forms.
Such as the form of Ministerial Regulations, Ministerial Decrees and Ministerial Instructions. All of that is formulated in the field of government that is accountable to him. Under certain circumstances, the minister will also issue a Ministerial Circular.
3. Operational technical policies
Operational technical policy is a policy that includes an outline in one public. The outline is carried out in one main area above. The form is a procedure, as well as a technique for implementing a plan, activity and program.
The authority to issue technical policies lies in the hands of first echelon leaders, in government departments. And lies in the leadership of non-departmental institutions. The results of determining the policy will be formulated in several forms. in the form of Decrees, Regulations, and Instructions for the Leaders of Departmental Institutions or Instructions of the Director General.
Within each administrative sector that is accountable to him. The content and soul of this technical policy must be in accordance with the policies above it. As well as administrative and technical implementation arrangements.
Listed in Regulations, Decrees, Instructions for Leaders of Non-Departmental Institutions and or Instructions of the Director General, which are usually implementation guidelines.
Public Policy Objectives
A public policy certainly has a purpose. A good policy must have a good purpose too. A good goal must at least meet 4 criteria.
Are as follows:
- Fulfilling what is desired to achieve
- Policies are rational or realistic
- Policies are clear
- Policies are made to be future-oriented.
That is a brief explanation of public policy. Starting from the understanding of public policy until the objectives of the public policy are made.
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Author: Wida Kurniasih
Source: from various sources
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