Definition of Social Board – A social board is an institution that has members and is made up of people who come together as one because they have a common vision and mission. Every member who joins the social institution will be bound by the rules that have been made and must be obeyed. So that some social institutions have a regulatory nature.
However, what exactly is the meaning of social institutions? What are the characteristics, types and types? The following article will discuss briefly about social institutions. Read to the end of the article!
A. Meaning of Social Board
In general, social institutions that exist in community life are always different from one institution to another. The difference from the social institution occurs because of the process and background that underlies the formation of the social institution.
Some members also expressed their opinions on the meaning of social institutions:
1. Major Polak
According to Polak, a social institution is a social system related to complex rules with various customs to be able to maintain all important values in community life.
W. Hamilton thinks that social institutions are a procedure and a way of life carried out by every group of society and if there is a violation, then the violator will be sanctioned according to the rules that he violated.
Koentjaraningrat also expressed his opinion. According to Koentjaraningrat, social institutions are a system with codes of conduct and relationships that have a center on social activities to be able to meet specific needs in community life.
4. Soerjono Soekanto
Soerjono Soekanto has a different opinion from Koentjaraningrat about the meaning of social institutions. According to Soerjono, social institutions are a set of norms at all levels that revolve around a basic need in social life.
5. Peter L Berger
In a different view from other experts, Peter L Berger expressed his opinion that social institutions are procedures that can cause human actions to be suppressed by a certain pattern and forced to move on a path that is considered to be in accordance with the wishes of society.
From the opinion on the meaning of social institution according to the experts, it can be concluded that social institution is a social system created through customs and adapted to each region that functions to regulate patterns and a series of procedures in order to create a social relationship that has one main purpose.
B. Functions of the Social Board
Social institutions that exist and are formed in society have the following functions.
- The social board functions to provide guidelines to community members on how each individual should behave in facing problems that appear and develop in the community.
- Social institutions function to maintain the integrity of the interrelated or concerned society.
- The social board functions to give instructions to the community to be able to establish a social control system such as a community supervision system for its members.
- That is a brief explanation about social institutions, Reader can learn more and dig deeper about the material of these social institutions.
C. Features of Social Board
Social institutions have several characteristics that Reader need to know in order to be able to determine and distinguish each type and type of social institution that will be explained later. Here are some of the characteristics of social institutions.
- Social institutions have a certain permanence that lasts a long time. This is due to the assumption that this social institution contains a set of norms that must be maintained by the members in it and these norms are like life and relationships in a family.
- Generally, social institutions have one or more specific goals that each member wants to achieve. For example, such as educational institutions that have the goal of being able to provide values, norms and knowledge to the next generation.
- The social board has a number of devices that work to achieve the goals that have been set by the previous members. For example, such as flags, banners in political institutions and money as a medium of exchange in economic institutions and others.
- The social board is a structured and relatively permanent organization.
- The norms found in social institutions are taken through a long process until they can be recognized by the local community.
- Social institutions have binding sanctions or punishments on how a person behaves and behaves.
- To achieve the goals that have been formulated before, social institutions have written and unwritten rules.
- Having certain complementary tools in the form of symbols and signs that can be used to represent the social institution along with the goals that the social institution wants to achieve.
D. Types of Social Boards
Social institutions are categorized based on five criteria, the following are the types of social institutions based on the five criteria.
1. Social Board Based on its Values
Social institutions based on their value criteria can be divided into two, namely primary and secondary.
a. Primary Social Institutions or Basic Social Institutions
Primary social institutions are social institutions that are basic and basic. Mainly this primary social institution is to regulate community life because it has high social rules to regulate community relations.
Social justice in this primary social institution exists in the community and is divided into four according to its rules.
- Religious rules , regulating the relationship between individuals and God based on all the teachings and prohibitions of God to shape people’s behavior to be useful to others.
- Code of Ethics, this code comes from within the individual himself. If the process of internalization as well as values and norms succeeds well and maximally, then the individual can follow the rules of morality in society. Examples include being honest, responsible and disciplined.
- The Code of Politeness is a rule that has a relationship with socialization and interaction formed through social relationships that occur in the community. For example, mutual respect.
- Law , is a set of regulations made by the authorities and is written and forces its citizens to implement the order that has been included in the law.
Examples of primary social institutions in society are such as family institutions, educational institutions, legal institutions, economic institutions, religious institutions and health institutions.
b. Secondary Social Institutions or Subsidiary Social Institutions
The type of secondary social institution means that this social institution is secondary, the value of this social institution is considered unimportant by some people. Secondary social institutions need to be carried out compactly by all levels of society, because if they are not carried out and are not fulfilled then these secondary social institutions will not have a great influence on community life.
But on the other hand, when secondary social institutions are established and fulfilled then this institution is only considered as an adder or added value. Based on the context of space and time does not exclude the possibility that the community will consider secondary social institutions as a primary need according to them. An example of a secondary social institution is a tourism institution.
Primary social institutions can change over time into secondary social institutions due to changing mindsets in society that continues to grow. For example, traditional people think that formal education is not very important.
The assumption will make the educational institution as a primary social institution change into a secondary social institution for the traditional society that considers that formal education is not too important.
2. Social Board based on its Development
Based on the development of social institutions, the following are the types of social institutions that are divided into two.
a. Growing Social Institutions
Crescive social institutions are social institutions that accidentally grow and develop in society. This social institution is formed based on community behavior patterns that have experienced strong integration in the lives of community members.
The pattern of behavior over time and without realizing it will develop and become a custom. It is these customs that then become the next stage to form a good institution. Examples are marriage institutions, religious institutions, property rights institutions.
b. Enacted Social Institutions
Enacted social institutions are institutions that are deliberately formed to achieve a purpose. This institution originates from crescive social institutions that are equipped with structures and social systems in them. For example, such as economic institutions that have the function of regulating various forms of activities such as production and consumption activities in society.
3. Based on the Angle of Acceptance by Society
a. Approved or Socially Sanctioned Institutions
Approve socially sanctioned institutions are social institutions that are accepted and recognized for their existence by the local community. Examples are health agencies, transportation agencies and trade agencies.
b. Unsanctioned Social Institutions
Unsanctioned social board is the opposite of approved. This unsanctioned social institution is not recognized for its existence by the community because it is considered disturbing to members of the community. Examples are terrorism networks or groups that threaten society.
4. Social Board based on its Function
a. Operative Social Institutions are institutions that have the task of gathering patterns and ways to achieve the goals of an institution. Examples are agricultural boards, industrial boards and educational boards.
b. Regulative Social Institutions, are social institutions that have the task of overseeing customs in the community, for example, the court and the prosecutor’s office.
5. Social Board based on its Distribution
a. General Social Institutions
is a social institution that exists in almost all societies so that its nature is universal or comprehensive. This board can be accepted by the wider community and has a high value to be able to meet the needs of all elements in the community. For example, such as religious institutions.
b. Restricted Social Institutions
This restricted social institution is formed based on the interests of certain groups, classes and groups which can then develop a special characteristic and cannot be applied to other groups, groups or classes. An example is an institution that is a reflection of local wisdom in a region in customs such as the irrigation organization in Bali.
Still confused by the types of social institutions? Reader can also learn more about social institutions including their types through books available on Sinaumedia.com such as the IPS Premium Interest Book which presents material about these social institutions.
E. Types of Social Boards
Social institutions are divided into six types according to their respective functions. Here is a complete explanation.
1. Family Board
The family institution is the smallest social institution and is formed on the basis of marriage and blood relations between individuals. Although the family institution is the smallest institution, this family institution has a very large role in community life and is included in the primary social institution.
2. Board of Education
The education board is also a primary social institution that is recognized by the community and has a great influence on the life of the community. An educational institution is an institution where the educational process takes place with the aim of changing individual behavior for the better.
Educational institutions themselves are then divided into three, namely formal education, non-formal education and informal education. Copy that, the educational institution can also be said to be an extension institution after the family institution.
3. Economic Board
As with the previous two types of social institutions, economic institutions are institutions that have activities in the economic field to achieve the goal of meeting the needs of society. This economic institution is included in the social institution because it regulates the relationship between people in meeting basic needs.
4. Religious Board
A religious institution is an institution that regulates human life in religion, a religious institution is a system of beliefs and religious practices carried out by people who believe in the belief.
Religion is an important thing in human life to be able to balance human life between this world and the hereafter. Religious institutions are also primary social institutions that are recognized and can support the basic needs of the community.
5. Political Board
A political institution is an institution that has a form of activity in community groups with the process of its formation and the distribution of power determined by the community itself. The political body can be in the form of a government that has the role of maintaining peace and order and serving and protecting the community.
6. Cultural Board
A cultural institution is a public institution that exists in a country and plays a role in the development of culture, art, environment, science and education in society in a region or a country.
Cultural institutions in the form of non-governmental organizations or NGOs, associations, workshops are elements that have a role in the preservation of art and culture in the region or country.
F. Examples of Social Boards in Indonesia
Here are some examples of social institutions based on the types that have been explained before.
1. Social Board in the Field of Education
- Kindergarten (TK)
- Elementary School (SD)
- Junior High School (SMP)
- Senior High School (SMA)
- Madrasah Aliyah
- Vocational High School
- Playgroup (KB)
- Special Board
2. Social Board in the Economic Field
- Ministry of Commerce
- Ministry of Agriculture
- Ministry of Fisheries
- State Ministry of Cooperatives and UKM
3. Social Board in the Field of Culture
- Nusantara Culture Board Foundation
- Coal Art Care Board
- Board of Indonesian Muslim Cultural Artists
- Betawi Cultural Board
4. Social Board in the Religious Field
- Council of Indonesian Scholars
- Federation of Indonesian Churches
- Indonesian Confucian High Council
- Indonesian Hindu Dharma Council
- Representative of Indonesian Buddhists
5. Social Board in the Political Field
- President and Vice President
6. Family Board
- Religious Court
- Child Protection Board
- National Population and Family Planning Agency
- Integrated Service Post
- Junior Band
Those are some examples of social institutions according to the types of social institutions.