Sources of energy – The various activities that we carry out today cannot be separated from energy sources, such as water, sun, petroleum, and so on.
Then, what exactly is meant by a source of energy?
Definition of Energy Sources
Energy sources are anything that can produce energy, either directly or through a conversion or transformation process. In addition, energy sources can be said to be everything around us that is capable of producing energy, both small and large. Examples are sun, water, and petroleum.
The definition of this is stated in Government Regulation (PP) No. 79 of 2014 concerning the National Energy Policy, an energy source is anything that can produce energy, either directly or through a conversion or transformation process.
Energy sources are divided into two, namely renewable energy sources and non-renewable energy sources. Renewable sources of energy, such as sun, waves, wind and water. Non-renewable energy sources include oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear.
In terms of division, the greatest source on earth is the sun. Solar energy in the form of light and heat is useful for life on earth. Without the sun, life on earth would not exist. The sun also acts as the center of the solar system which is surrounded by eight planets, including the earth.
Types of Energy Sources and Examples
As previously explained, the source itself is divided into two types, namely renewable energy sources and non-renewable energy sources. The following is a complete explanation of the two energy sources.
Renewable Energy Sources
Renewable resources are resources that will not run out if used continuously. For example, geothermal, wind, bioenergy, sunlight, water flows and falls, as well as the movement and temperature differences of the sea layers.
Renewable sources can be used as alternative energy. The meaning of alternative energy is all sources that can be used and aim to replace conventional fuels without the expected consequences of this.
The following are examples of renewable energy sources, including:
1. The sun
Solar energy is very abundant, especially for areas with tropical climates. Solar energy is the most important source of energy for human life.
Utilization of sunlight is to use solar cells that function to convert solar energy into electrical energy. There are also those who use sunlight to cook using solar-powered stove products, for example in India.
The energy emitted by the sun is produced from fusion reactions, namely the merger of 4 hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei that occur in the sun’s core.
Solar energy can be converted to other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity by using a Solar Power Plant (PLTS). According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), solar energy is generated in two main ways, namely:
- Solar cells ( solar cells ) or also known as photovoltaic cells are devices that can convert energy in light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. This technology was introduced by the French physicist Antoine-Cesar in 1839.
- Concentrated solar power (CSP) uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight. Solar energy is used to heat fluids at high temperatures using a concentrator system. The greater the concentration factor, the higher the temperature of the liquid being heated.
The benefits of solar energy are as follows:
- Warms the earth and living things on earth.
- The sun’s heat energy makes air and water on earth circulate.
- As lighting during the day so as to save electrical energy.
- The sun’s heat is used to dry clothes and other laundry items.
- Basking in the sun regularly helps the body get enough vitamin D.
Wind energy is energy generated by air and blows on the surface of the earth. Wind energy can be converted into mechanics with the aim of generating business. This effort is of course related to the continuity of human life on earth.
The use of wind is not only for fresh air so that it can also be used for daily survival. One example of energy generated from wind energy sources, such as electrical energy. This electrical energy can be used by many people to wash using a washing machine, to cook using a magic com , to boil water using an electric pot and so on.
The use of wind energy began in the 7th century BC by the Persians who used windmills to grind rice, chop wood, and generate other forms of mechanical energy.
The use of wind energy is being intensively carried out by many countries around the world, because this energy source is not limited in number. Usually, this energy utilization uses a windmill connected to a generator or turbine to generate electricity.
The benefits of wind energy include:
- Drive windmills and wind turbines, so they can generate electricity.
- Pushing the sailboat so it can run.
- Help with the drying process.
Water energy is energy that produces hydropower or hydropower by utilizing the movement of water from dams or by utilizing flowing water. .
Utilization of water energy can be seen in the use of Hydroelectric Power Plants (PLTA) for a better life. Energy derived from hydropower has actually been used by humans for a long time because it is more environmentally friendly and abundant in quantity.
At the bottom of the dam there are turbines in the water channel holes. Its function is to convert the kinetic energy of water movement into mechanical energy for electric generators. Electrical energy that comes from water is called hydroelectric.
Increasing the use of water energy, can reduce the use of conventional energy sources (fossil fuels).
As for some of the benefits of solar energy sources, among others:
- As a power plant using a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity.
- The need for transportation, tourism and irrigation or watering in agriculture.
Geothermal energy is energy that comes from the bowels of the earth. In addition, geothermal can be considered as abundant and renewable energy, so there is no need to worry about running out of geothermal energy.
This heat energy is precisely produced in the earth’s core which is estimated to be at a depth of 6,400 km from the earth’s surface, as explained in the New and Renewable Energy Textbook.
Geothermal comes from the outer core of the earth which is formed from hot molten rock called magma. Then, geothermal energy arises due to the decay of radioactive particles in the rock. If geothermal energy reaches underground water reservoirs, natural hot springs or hot springs will appear .
In addition, geothermal heat can also come out to the earth’s surface in the form of geysers, volcanoes and fumaroles, namely hot water vapor due to very high temperature and pressure. Therefore, geothermal heat is able to penetrate the hard soil layers and exit towards the earth’s surface.
Geothermal energy is utilized for Geothermal Power Plants (PLTP), namely electricity generated from turbine motion driven by geothermal energy.
The way to use it is to make a well whose depth reaches a geothermal point. Then, the heat is channeled to the turbine location to drive the turbine.
Biomass is all living or dead things. Biomass energy sources themselves can come from plants, live plants, dead trees, wood chips, animals, microorganisms, and organic matter, including organic waste. Biomass energy can also be used as a Biomass Power Plant (PLTBm).
However, biomass needs to be converted so that it can be used as an energy source. Quoting the publication of the Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB), in general, the technology for converting biomass into fuel can be divided into three, namely direct combustion, thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion.
Direct combustion is the simplest technology because it directly burns biomass. Meanwhile, some biomass needs to be dried first and identified for practicality in use.
Thermochemical conversion is a technology that requires thermal treatment to trigger a chemical reaction to produce fuel. While biochemical conversion is a conversion technology that uses the help of microbes in producing fuel.
Non-Renewable Energy Sources
Non-renewable energy sources ( non-renewable ) are energy sources that cannot be filled or regenerated by nature in a short time, not a sustainable process. This definition is contained in the book Energy and Change. In addition, this type of energy source is very limited or can run out at any time.
This energy source can be said that until now it is the main energy source that is widely used even though many parties have switched to using alternative energy sources.
Many countries in the world are switching to other energy sources before this non-renewable energy source runs out.
Non-renewable energy sources come from the bowels of the earth in liquid, gas and solid forms. The examples of non-renewable energy sources, such as petroleum, natural gas, propane, coal and uranium.
For more details, here are some examples of non-renewable energy sources.
Petroleum is the most widely used energy source by humans. One of the uses of petroleum is as a stove fuel for cooking. The price of oil in the world is now soaring, so that many countries are diverting energy sources from oil to gas. Therefore, at this time, they no longer use kerosene, but use gas stoves.
This is done to balance the use of these energy sources. Of course, the use of gas energy sources is not only that. There are many other uses, so many alternative energy sources are used. The goal is to save this energy source.
Petroleum is a concentrated liquid that is in the top layer of the earth’s crust. To get it, various geological studies are needed to determine the location of the oil well. For hundreds of years, petroleum has brought great benefits to people around the world.
Petroleum comes from living things that died and then covered with layers of soil and rock. Therefore, you could say that petroleum is a mixture of carbon and hydrogen molecules formed from sedimentary remains of animals and plants trapped for millions of years.
The formation of petroleum through the process of hydrocarbons in the soil that was buried about three million years ago. The formation process occurs at a temperature of 65-195 degrees Celsius at a depth of 5,000-12,000 feet.
If the supply of petroleum dwindles or runs out, it cannot be renewed. This is because the formation process waits for millions of years. Therefore, petroleum is included in non-renewable natural resources.
Crude oil will go through a process of separation and cracking (separation) before being used. In this separation process, it aims to separate the hydrocarbon components based on the boiling point.
As for some of the benefits of petroleum, among others:
- As fuel for cooking.
- Source of fuel for transportation.
- Materials for the manufacture or synthesis of compounds in paint products, cosmetics, plastics, rubber, detergents, and so on.
- As a lubricant or oil in various vehicle engines.
- Wax making materials for batik making, paper coatings for food, and so on.
- Ignition fuel in large industries, such as Steam Power Plants (PLTU).
- Material for asphalt in the manufacture of highways, but it can also be used as an insulator.
Coal is a complex mixture of organic chemicals containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in a carbon chain, as described in the Indonesian Coal book.
Juridically, the definition of coal is stated in According to Law no. 3 of 2020 concerning Amendments to Law Number 4 of 2009 concerning Mineral and Coal Mining. The definition of coal is a deposit of carbonaceous organic compounds that are formed naturally from the remains of plants.
Reporting from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in a press release number 246.Pers/04/SJI/2021, Indonesia’s coal reserves currently reach 38.84 billion tons. With an average coal production of 600 million tonnes per year, coal reserves in Indonesia can still be used for up to 65 years.
Apart from coal reserves, there are also coal resources recorded at 143.7 billion tonnes. Referring to the book Coal and its Utilization, the use of coal in Indonesia is generally used for power plants and cement factories.
Starting in 1993, Indonesia took steps to socialize the use of coal in society as a household material and small industries. In Indonesia, the largest coal production is on the island of Kalimantan.
Some of the benefits of coal energy sources include:
- As fuel for power generation.
- The main fuel for the production of steel, cement, alumina processing centers, paper mills, chemical industries, and pharmaceuticals.
- Coal by-products include soap, aspirin, solvents, dyes, plastics and fibers.
3. Fossil Energy Sources
This fossil energy source can actually be renewed but takes up to “millions of years”. Fossil energy sources come from living things that died and were buried in the ground for millions of years. The examples of this energy source, such as petroleum, coal.
As for some of the benefits of fossil energy sources, among others:
- As fuel for power generation
- Can be used as vehicle fuel
4. Natural Mineral Energy Sources
Natural mineral energy sources can also be used as energy sources after going through several processes, for example uranium which can produce nuclear energy. Because it takes a process first, it takes some technology so that this energy source can be used.
The benefits of natural mineral energy sources include:
- For power generation
- As natural gas
Energy sources are really needed by everyone, so we should also take care of them. One way to guard against it is not to overuse energy sources. Wisely using energy sources, you can use energy sources longer.
Thus the discussion about energy sources , I hope all the discussion above can be useful for Sinaumed’s.
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