Household Waste: Impact, Type, Example, and Management – Humans in carrying out their daily lives have various needs that must be met. In fulfilling these needs, residual materials or waste will be produced which are called household waste.
Household waste is residual material resulting from household activities
Household waste is now growing along with the development of population and the number of increasingly dense settlements. The existence of this household waste has become a concern for the community and the government because it can cause various negative impacts.
Examples of Household Waste
- water left over from washing clothes
- dishwashing water,
- food waste
- vegetable waste
- plastic waste
The Impact of Household Waste on Society
Household waste is often disposed of carelessly without prior sorting or processing, causing pollution and environmental damage, from water, soil to air. Pollution and environmental damage caused by household waste disposal is not something that can be underestimated because in the future it will be able to disrupt the health and comfort of the community. The following are some of the impacts that will be felt by the community due to the disposal of household waste indiscriminately or without management.
1. The Impact of Household Waste on Health
Indiscriminate disposal of household waste can have a negative impact on the health of the surrounding community. Some diseases that can be caused by this waste are diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, fungal diseases, and intestinal worms.
2. The Impact of Household Waste on the Environment
Careless handling of household waste will result in damage and pollution to the environment. This environmental damage and pollution will have a negative impact on the community, such as causing flooding and causing an unpleasant odor.
3. The Impact of Household Waste on Social and Economic Conditions
Careless handling of household waste will have a negative impact on the social and economic conditions of the community. Household waste can cause many diseases which can result in high health costs. Dirty and polluted environmental conditions due to waste will ultimately have an impact on the social life of the community.
Types, Examples, and Methods of Household Waste Management
Efforts to manage household waste properly really need to be done to overcome the impact of pollution and environmental damage that occurs. Household waste management can be done according to each type. Types of household waste are divided into three, namely solid waste, liquid waste, and waste originating from human waste. The following is an explanation of the types of household waste and how to manage them.
1. Solid Waste (Garbage)
Solid waste or garbage is produced from various materials that are left over or no longer needed to meet household needs. Solid waste that is disposed of carelessly will cause problems, in the form of pollution and disruption to the sustainability of the environment. Solid waste or household waste is divided into two types, namely organic waste and inorganic waste.
A) Organic Household Waste or Garbage
Organic waste is waste generated from food waste, such as fruit, vegetables and rice. Organic waste will decompose and decompose by itself. Disposal of organic waste containing protein can cause various impacts, namely causing a bad smell and causing the waters to become very fertile or eutrophication which will increase the amount of algae and phytoplankton rapidly so that they will compete with each other for light which is useful in the process of photosynthesis. .
Here is a book on an easy way to make organic fertilizer.
B) Inorganic Household Waste or Garbage
Inorganic waste is waste generated from leftover or used materials that are difficult or even cannot be decomposed through biological processes, such as glass, plastic, synthetic cork (styrofoam), aluminum and iron. The accumulation and disposal of this type of waste will greatly impact the environment, ranging from disturbing the view and comfort to causing the soil to become polluted.
Management of solid waste or household waste can be done using various methods. The following are some recommended processes for managing solid waste or household waste.
Solid Waste Management Process
Segregation is one of the most common ways of managing solid waste. This method is carried out by sorting or separating organic waste (wet waste) and inorganic waste (dry waste) by each household actor. Organic waste (wet waste) can be processed into organic fertilizer or compost by household actors who own crop or agricultural land. Meanwhile, inorganic waste (dry waste), such as cans, bottles, plastic and bottle caps, can be sorted again to be given to scavengers or recycled so that they become valuable items.
Here is a book about various unique creations made with bottle caps.
Container is an independent temporary waste storage activity before being transported or transferred to a Temporary Shelter (TPS) or Final Processing Site (TPA). In this method of waste management, household actors need to provide containers, which will separate inorganic waste based on type or material, in the yard or on the side of the road to facilitate the collection and transportation of waste and its subsequent processing. To avoid odors and leakage in the container, waste containers need to meet several requirements, namely being closed, made of non-perishable and watertight materials, easy to empty or transport.
The process of collecting solid waste or household waste is carried out by cleaning workers who visit each house and transport or move the waste to the Temporary Storage Site (TPS). The process of collecting solid waste or household waste can also be done in another way, namely through direct communal. Direct communal is the process of taking solid waste or garbage at each communal point to be transported directly to the Final Processing Site (TPA) without being moved first.
The activity of transporting solid waste or household waste in the communal collection process is directly carried out using a compactor truck type transport vehicle , which has a capacity of 6 m3, and an arm roll truck , which has a capacity of 4 m3. The two vehicles for transporting solid waste or garbage are equipped with a hydraulic pull arm which is controlled by the driver so that they can move automatically. With the hydraulic pull arm, loading or unloading of waste can be carried out more easily without direct contact with the waste. Compactor truck type transport vehicles have the advantage of pressing solid waste or garbage so that it can increase its capacity.
5) Temporary Shelters (TPS)
Garbage that has previously been collected and transported will be brought to the Temporary Storage Site (TPS). TPS is a storage place before waste is moved back to the processing and recycling site or Final Processing Site (TPA).
6) Final Processing Site (TPA)
Solid waste or waste that has arrived at the Final Processing Site (TPA) will be safely isolated or stored so as not to cause disturbance to the environment. In addition to isolating or stockpiling waste, the TPA will also process waste by sorting waste, recycling inorganic waste, and composting organic waste. Handling this waste is expected to reduce the amount of household waste and the disturbance it causes.
7) Waste Management with the 3R Concept
Another effort that can be done by the community to reduce the amount of solid waste or household waste and its impacts is to apply the 3R concept, namely reduce , reuse and recycle .
Reduce is an activity to reduce the amount of waste by reducing the use of materials or goods for daily needs. Reducing the number of materials or daily necessities can be done in six ways, namely: (1) using materials or necessities that can last a long time or are durable, (2) reducing the use of disposable items, (3) reducing the amount of groceries that are not too needed, (4) maintain and repair existing toys, household appliances, clothing, and tools, (5) use the same plastic bag for shopping several times, and (6) use eco-friendly shopping baskets or bags.
Reuse is an activity of sorting various items or materials that can be reused and avoiding the use of disposable items. By applying this concept, the usage period of goods will be longer so that the amount of waste will be reduced. There are three forms of reusing used goods that can be done: (1) reusing packaged goods, such as bottles and cans, with the same function; (2) using packaged goods as a place to store something, such as using old newspapers to wrap vegetables or other goods and using used bottles as containers for plant seeds; and (3) choosing to use goods or materials that can be used repeatedly, such as rechargeable batteries.
Recycle is an activity of recycling used goods or materials that are no longer useful. Currently, more and more formal industries are carrying out recycling activities by utilizing used goods or materials into valuable goods. Some inorganic household waste that can be recycled, namely paper, glass, bottles, plastic, cans, and cloth scraps. These items can be collected to be given away or sold to people who collect waste for recycling activities.
Here is a book on waste management to produce valuable goods.
2. Liquid Waste (Wastewater)
Household waste water is produced from various activities or daily needs of household actors, such as water used for bathing, water used for washing clothes, water used for washing cutlery, and food waste in liquid form.
Household waste water needs to be managed to avoid environmental pollution. One of the ways that can be done to manage household waste water is to make sewage channels or impregnation tanks. Some things that need to be considered in making sewerage channels or impregnation tanks, namely:
- It should not cause clean water sources in the environment to be polluted
- Do not get dirty on the ground surface.
- Prevents the spread of hookworms on the soil surface.
- Prevents the breeding of flies and other insects.
- Must not cause bad odors that will disturb the surrounding community.
- Make construction simply by using materials that are cheap and easy to obtain.
- Water sources and infiltration tanks have a minimum distance of 10 m.
3. Waste from human excrement
Human waste is one of the causes of pollution in the environment. Waste from this dirt, including feces and urine. This waste can disrupt the balance of ecosystems in soil, water and air. Therefore, this waste disposal site needs to be managed properly to prevent environmental pollution.
One way that can be done to reduce pollution from sewage is by using a Bio Septic Tank . Bio septic tanks can be used to decompose sewage from household wastewater which can cause pollution to the environment. This tool has a good filter so as to reduce the smell of sewage and avoid soil contamination. Bio septic tanks are made of thick fiber to prevent leakage so that they can hold water and dirt with a large enough capacity.