Examples of Military Threats – Every country is not always peaceful and under control. Occasionally there are conflicts and some have continued to this day, such as Palestine and Israel. One threat to a country is a military threat.
This military threat has the potential to make a country divided and no longer conducive. Bullets, screams, worries, fear, and other things related to war. Indonesia is no exception, it has also experienced military threats.
The following will explain the meaning, coping strategies, and examples of military threats that have been summarized from various pages on the internet.
Concepts and Examples of Military Threats
Military threats are threats that use armed force and are carried out in an organized manner. This threat is considered to endanger state sovereignty, the safety of the whole nation, and territorial integrity.
To maintain defense and uphold state sovereignty is the duty of the Indonesian National Army (TNI). In Law No. 34 of 2004 concerning the Indonesian National Armed Forces, the TNI is tasked with maintaining territorial integrity, protecting national security, carrying out military operations for war and military operations other than war, and actively participating in regional and international peacekeeping tasks.
In Law no. 3 of 2022, the military threats facing Indonesia are military aggression, territorial violations, espionage and sabotage. Not only that, there are also domestic threats that have the potential to divide the integration of the Indonesian nation.
The TNI does not only protect the country’s defense from threats originating from abroad. However, there are also threats from within the country that have the potential to disrupt state sovereignty. In the “Indonesian Defense White Paper” published by the Ministry of Defense and the book “Citizenship Education”, military threats consist of the following points.
1. Arms Rebellion
TNI strength is applied in military operations other than war (OMSP) by developing an effective strategy. If there is an armed rebellion, the handling is carried out based on the government’s political decision and is protected by law.
As a handling of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) which became an armed separatist movement in caeh. In handling it, the TNI also intervened. Peace is realized with a dialogical approach between GAM and the people of Aceh so that they mingle again in harmony and peace.
2. Military Aggression
Military aggression is the use of armed force from one country to attack another country. Military aggression never happened in Indonesia. Indonesia was subjected to military aggression by the Dutch after independence.
Indonesia experienced two military aggressions. Dutch Military Aggression I was launched on 21 July 1947 to 5 August 1947 with Java and Sumatra as the goal of the invasion. Meanwhile, the Second Dutch Military Aggression took place on 19-20 December 1948 in Yogyakarta, which at that time was the capital of the Republic of Indonesia.
Threats of sabotage are also handled by the TNI. For example, sabotage related to VVIP security and strategic national objects, government installations, or military installations. MOM strategies and patterns are also applied to handling sabotage threats.
The strength given in this operation is in accordance with the level of risk and the mission being carried out. From non-military groups, they can report to the authorities if they see any potential to lead to acts of sabotage.
4. Separatist Movement
In Indonesian history, there have been several separatist movements. Such as, the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), DI/TII, PRRI, Permesta, Kahar Muzakar, and G30S/PKI.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), espionage is interpreted as a secret investigation or spying on military data and economic data from other countries; everything related to the nitty-gritty; spying.
Espionage, also known as spying, searches or steals information to obtain military secrets from other countries. This must be done by an expert who looks undercover and conveys information secretly too.
This threat, usually handled by using force and military capabilities. The strategy applied is a special operation pattern to dismantle, paralyze and clean up espionage networks.
Military and non-military groups must work together in dealing with espionage. Non-military groups can monitor suspicious activity in their environment. Then, report it to the authorities.
Launching from the Tirto.id page, Indonesia experienced espionage in 1982, at that time Alexandre Finenko, a Soviet intelligence officer, was in charge of Operation Aeroflot to extract secret documents from a high-ranking Indonesian military officer, Lt. Col. Soesdarjanto. Alexandre Finenko was arrested on 6 February 1982. He went on a hunger strike until he was deported on 13 February 1982 and it was decided to end Operation Aeroflot.
6. Threat of Riot
Economic disparities or coercion of the interests of certain groups can be the cause of riots. If riots erupt and are accompanied by violence, it will divide society.
Indonesia often experiences riots that result in the loss of many lives. Such as the 1998-1999 riots, the 1974 Malari riot, the 1965 tragedy (G30S), the 2022 Kanjuruhan tragedy, and other tragedies.
7. Armed Terror
Handling the threat of domestic or international terrorism is part of the TNI’s duties. This is regulated in Law No. 34 of 2004 concerning the TNI. The task is prioritized with a preventive approach and can be carried out repressively/coercively.
The intelligence function in gathering information about acts of terrorism must work properly and precisely so that acts of terrorism can be prevented. The TNI usually exchanges information with other countries because the terrorist network is an international network.
8. Territory Violation
Territorial violations are carried out by entering the sea or land border areas of a country by another country without the permission of the border officer. Territorial violation cases that have occurred in Indonesia are in the Ambalat Block area. Malaysian war planes have arbitrarily entered Indonesian territory 9 times.
9. Security Disruption
Security disturbances can occur at sea and in the air. In practice, the TNI can handle three-dimensional forces, namely the Army, Navy and Air Force. If you need help from another country, it will be done on the basis of the country’s political decisions.
Therefore, it is necessary to have a system arrangement. The arrangement includes signs in shipping lanes for navigational purposes to controlling sea shipping lanes. Then, the arrangement of the air corridor system was also carried out for the sake of aviation security.
10. Communal Conflict
When dealing with communal conflicts, military power holds three things. First, the use of military force is based on political decisions. Second, implemented through OMSP. Third, the use of force and strategy is carried out with MOM and the conditions of communal conflict they face.
11. Non-Military Threats
Domestic threats can be non-military, namely in the form of poverty, corruption, socio-cultural problems, socio-cultural problems, drugs, and the spread of hoax news. The TNI has a TNI Manunggal Entering the Village (TMMD) program which often repairs uninhabitable houses or builds public facilities, as well as conducts outreach to villages or schools.
When dealing with a threat fails to use diplomacy, the state can carry out a military operation strategy of war (OMP) and military operations other than war (OMSP). The TNI is the main force in efforts to deal with threats.
However, the state also has a defense and security system that involves all components of the people. Launching from the Bola.com and Detik com pages, here are several ways to deal with military threats.
- Tightening restrictions with other countries.
- Tackling and overcoming military threats in the country.
- Train soldiers to be more disciplined in guarding the border area.
- Increase defense equipment.
- The community is expected to play an active role in efforts to maintain and care for sovereignty.
- Dealing with the threat of the separatist movement through dialogue and improving the welfare of the people and the perpetrators of the separatist movement.
- Handling inter-tribal wars by means of mediation, bringing together traditional leaders, to equitable development.
- Prevent extreme right and left ideologies by instilling and increasing the practice of Pancasila values among the people.
- Increase intelligence work and cooperate with various parties to prevent or detect as early as possible potential threats that could endanger the defense and integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
- Even distribution of development throughout the country as an effort to prevent the emergence of conflicts.
How to Overcome Domestic Threats
In the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, a strategy has been set out to regulate the defense and security of the Indonesian nation in overcoming the threat of national integration.
Article 30 paragraph (1) to (5) of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia states that:
- Every citizen has the right and obligation to participate in the defense and security of the state.
- State defense and security efforts are carried out through the defense and security system of the entire people by the Indonesian National Armed Forces and the Indonesian National Police of the Republic of Indonesia, as the main force, and the people, as the supporting force.
- The Indonesian National Armed Forces consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force as state instruments tasked with defending, protecting and maintaining the integrity and sovereignty of the country.
- The National Police of the Republic of Indonesia as an instrument of the state that maintains security and public order are tasked with protecting, protecting, serving the community, and enforcing the law.
- The composition and position of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, the Indonesian National Police, the relationship between the authorities of the Indonesian National Armed Forces and the Indonesian National Police in carrying out their duties, the conditions for citizens’ participation in defense and security efforts are regulated by law.