Understanding Forms of Social Mobility, Factors, & Their Impact on Society

Forms of Social Mobility – Humans are dynamic social beings. That is, every human being always experiences the name of change in order to meet the needs of his life.

To meet the needs of his life, humans always try to improve their lives and increase their social status. To improve their social status, one of the ways to do this is by doing social mobility.

In social life, every community must be involved with social mobility. Usually, this social mobility is described as a movement or movement that is capable of bringing about a change that is related to life in society.

Social mobility is a phenomenon that often occurs in social life, so it doesn’t only happen to individuals or groups of people, but everyone must experience social mobility in their lives without realizing it.

But what exactly is social mobility? Sinaumed’s must have known that mobility means moving, what about social mobility, and what forms of social mobility?

Let’s look at the following reviews, so you can better understand this.

Definition of Social Mobility

In general, social mobility is a form of change in the position of people in one social class to another. The notion of social mobility means a movement of individuals or groups through a hierarchical system or social stratification.

In KBBI, social mobility is defined as a change in the position of a member of society from one social class to another.

Following are some definitions of Social Mobility According to Experts.

1. Soerjono Soekanto

Social mobility according to Soerjono Soekanto is movement from one social position to another.

2. Robert MZ Lawang

Social mobility is defined as a gradual shift in the position of a person or group of layers and dimensions.

3. Horton and Hunt

Social mobility is a movement of movement from one social class to another social class.

4. Kimball Young and Reymond W. Mack

Social mobility is a movement within a certain social structure, namely certain patterns that govern the organization of a social group

5. Pitrim A. Sorokin

Understanding social mobility can be done through several channels called social circulation or social circulation . This social circulation can take the form of educational institutions, health institutions, political organizations, and others.

Thus, when talking about social mobility, what is meant is a form of transfer of status and role of a person or group of people from a lower social class to a higher social class, or from a higher social class to a lower social class (vertical ) . or movement of social class with a degree that is unidirectional or horizontal .



Forms of Social Mobility

Mobility takes several forms. The division of this form of social mobility is based on the influence or not of the results of the transfer of social status experienced with the social degree one has.

Forms of social mobility are basically divided into three, namely vertical social mobility, horizontal social mobility, and intergenerational social mobility. Come on, see the explanations one by one.

1. Forms of Vertical Social Mobility

The form of vertical social mobility means the movement of individuals or social objects from one social position to another in a position that is not equal.

Try to imagine, you are in the middle of a vertical line. When you are in that position, you have the opportunity to go up or down, right? Well, so does vertical mobility which is divided into two types, namely upward vertical social mobility and downward vertical social mobility.

a. Downward movement of social mobility (Social sinking )

There is a process of decreasing one’s social status or position from top to bottom. The reason for the occurrence of social sinking does not only occur because of dismissal, work errors, abuse of position or bad things.

However, social sinking can also occur due to retirement, experiencing chronic illness, and being unable to carry out a task.

An example of a downward social mobility movement, namely being dismissed from a job due to proven corruption, could also be a football captain turning into an ordinary soccer player, or a government staff member who officially retired from a government institution and now spends time looking after his grandchildren.

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b. Upward social mobility movement ( Social climbing )

This upward vertical social mobility is characterized by an increase in one’s social status to a higher position or the formation of a new group that is higher than the pre-existing social layer.

This movement allows individuals to experience a rise in status that is not equal to their previous status, so there will be many things that must be adjusted to their previous life. Usually, individuals who experience social climbing have good performance.

For example a teacher who is appointed as a school principal, an ordinary employee who is appointed as a manager, a citizen who is appointed as an RT head.



2. Forms of Horizontal Social Mobility

The form of horizontal social mobility is the transition or movement of individuals from one social group to another in an equal position.

You are now trying to imagine again, if you are in the middle of a horizontal line. If you are there, whether you want to move to the right or to the left, surely you will be in a parallel place, right? Well, just like this horizontal mobility.

Usually, this form of horizontal social mobility occurs in a change of citizenship, a change in assignment location without changing positions. Well, because the displacement that occurs in this mobility does not change a person’s strata or degree, there is not much change in his previous life.

Even so, individuals who experience this mobility must still make adjustments and readjust to their new environment, even though the work they do is the same work they usually do.

Examples of forms of horizontal social mobility:

  1. For example, someone who was originally a Polish citizen, then because of some circumstances he moved to become a citizen of another country through the naturalization process (citizenship).
    This form of citizenship transition is a process of changing the position or position of someone who is equal, so that this event is included in the form of horizontal social mobility.
  2. Someone who changes profession from a job in a certain service agency, for example a transportation service bureau, then he switches professions to become a sales executive in a company, then this is also called horizontal social mobility.
  3. Students who carry out community service activities must move to other villages in the same geography.
  4. A transferred school principal becomes a school principal outside the city.

It should be noted that what is happening is a social shift of a person or group of people in patterns of equal position.



3. Forms of Intergenerational Mobility

This form of intergenerational social mobility is characterized by an increase or development in the standard of living within a lineage which does not only refer to its social position (status), from one generation to the next.

Forms of intergenerational mobility can also be understood as the difference in status achieved by someone who already has his own family, compared to the social status held by his parents.

An example of this form of intergenerational mobility is, someone who has mediocre economic conditions, as an adult, he manages to establish a successful business. Because of the child’s success, there is a change in social status between his parents and himself that is intergenerational.

Furthermore, forms of intergenerational mobility can be divided into two types, namely:

1. Mobility integration

Integrative mobility is a shift in social status that occurs between several generations. The description of this integration mobility can be seen from the social status between the generations of grandfathers, fathers and children, which are different.

For example, in one family, the grandfather works or works as a doctor, while the child works as a teacher, while the grandson works as a lecturer. Or it could be that the grandmother works as a civil servant, then her child works as a housewife, while her grandson works as a successful businessman.

2. Intragenerational mobility

Intragenerational mobility is a shift in social status that occurs within the same generation, from fathers, mothers, to their children.

For example, in one family, the father works as a private employee, the son works as a teacher. Or it could be, a mother works as a housewife only, while her child works as a doctor.

Factors Driving Social Mobility

After you know the definition of social mobility, as well as the forms of social mobility, of course there are driving factors that can cause social mobility. The following are several factors driving social mobility.

1. Individual factors

Social mobility can be caused by individual factors. This individual factor can be seen in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, because basically humans are born with their own characteristics and characteristics. Even so, humans have the same desire to achieve a higher social status.

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In Indonesia itself, the educational factor is considered a social elevator or a means that can make a person become a more qualified person and is also able to improve his social status in society.

2. Structural factors

Structural factors relate to a person’s opportunity to be able to occupy a position and the ease with which he can obtain it. In Indonesia, the opportunity to occupy a position with this structural factor is very large. Many people have the opportunity to occupy a higher position.

3. Political factors

Another driving factor, namely political factors. Political factors can be a trigger for social mobility because of the political situation in a country that is stable or will not affect its security conditions. Usually, a person leaves the area where he lives in order to obtain security guarantees.

4. Demographic/population factors

Based on data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) the population in Indonesia almost always increases from time to time. This factor refers to the increase in the number and density of population in a certain area.

This increase has had an impact on the narrowness of residential land, reduced employment opportunities, and worsened environmental quality. That problem can trigger someone to migrate to an area that they feel is better.

5. Economic factors

Economic conditions are one of the driving factors for social mobility. Good economic conditions will make it easier for people to obtain capital, education and other better opportunities.

However, if the economic conditions in a country are bad, then the people in it will have low or limited income, so that it will be difficult for them to meet all their needs and social mobility will not occur.

Factors Inhibiting Social Mobility

In encouraging social mobility, it is not only driving factors that occur, but there are also inhibiting factors, which can cause several impacts to occur. When the inhibiting factors appear, it will be difficult for the community to be able to carry out social mobility properly.

1. The poverty factor

People who experience poverty, and even find it difficult to earn income, will automatically find it difficult to achieve a certain status. Usually, the cause of poverty is a low level of education.

When the level of education in a community is low, then the human resources in that place are also low. So that there is no more effort that they can do to get or have the ability to be able to compete and in the end they will be limited in getting jobs.

2. Factors of discrimination

This factor is sometimes often overlooked, but in reality social mobility can be greatly hampered when there is discrimination. This discriminatory factor is an attitude that differentiates the treatment of others because of differences, namely ethnicity, religion, race, and class.

Usually, these differentiating factors have a big impact and can lead to conflicts which can then hinder social mobility.

3. Gender stereotype factor

This factor is a factor that differentiates gender or social position between men and women. There are still many people who think that the degree of men is higher than that of women. This can hinder social mobility.

Distinguishing gender will also prevent a person from being able to achieve, because stereotypes of social status are considered different, thus preventing a person from making efforts and carrying out social mobility in order to get a better social status.

Impact of Social Mobility

The occurrence of social mobility certainly has an impact on society at large. There are two impacts that could occur, namely positive impacts and negative impacts.

1. The positive impact of social mobility

The positive impact of the occurrence of social mobility is a beneficial impact and provides benefits for people who carry out social mobility. This positive impact can encourage someone to develop for the better.

Some of the positive impacts of social mobility are increasing the social integration of a person or a community. The occurrence of social change certainly has a different response, some respond as a challenge, some respond as a form of acceptance which ultimately affects integrity in society.

2. The negative impact of social mobility

It is undeniable that social mobility definitely has a negative impact. One of them arises social conflicts. This social conflict can occur because of competition between individuals or groups to get a higher position which leads to conflict.

Another impact is the risk of psychological disorders. Not a few people experience anxiety when they lose their position and cause psychological disorders. It can even harm itself if it becomes prolonged stress.

So, that’s an explanation of the forms of social mobility and other matters related to social mobility. Sinaumed’s can read sociology books so he can understand more about social mobility. As #Friends Without Limits, sinaumedia always provides the best products so that Sinaumed’s can have #MoreWithReading information.

Author: Nurul Ismi Humairoh