Types of Kafarat and How to Pay It

Kinds of Kafarat – Islamic law makes it easy for its followers. One of them is the law of expiation to correct or pay fines for mistakes made by humans. Of course this law is regulated in detail in Islam.

Next, You can listen to a detailed explanation of expiation.

The definition and legal basis for expiation

In language, kafarat comes from the word “kafara” which means “to replace, pay, cover, and repair”. Kafarat is a way to make amends for a mistake that was intentionally made by paying an amount of money that must be paid in accordance with the provisions and objectives.

Meanwhile, in al-Qamus al-Fiqhiy by Sa’diy Abu Jayb, the meaning of expiation is “something that can cover sins such as giving charity, fasting and so on.”

Wahbah Zuhailiy said that expiation is divided into four parts, namely: expiation of zhihar, expiation of accidental killing, expiation of having intercourse during the day on purpose during the month of Ramadan, and expiation of oaths.

Wahbah Zuhaili further formulates expiation as a means of covering sins. The word kaffarat is taken from kafr which means to close, that is to cover sins that occur or are caused by oath violations, so swearing is a cause for expiation.

As for the Lisan al-‘Arab mentions that kafaat is an attempt to cover something by giving alms or fasting or with something similar to it.

In terms of expiation, it is a fine that must be paid for violating a stipulation of syara’ (which results in a sin), with the aim of eliminating/covering the said sin so that it will no longer have any effect, either in this world or in the hereafter.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), kafarat is defined as a fine that must be paid for violating Allah’s prohibition. or breaking a promise and as an offering to Allah SWT. as a sign of asking for forgiveness (for having violated God’s law).

In the Koran in Surah Al-Ma’idah verse 89 can be used as a legal basis for expiation. Here’s the meaning of the verse.

“Allah will not punish you for your unintentional oaths (to swear), but He will punish you for your oaths that you willfully take, then the expiation (penalty for breaking your oath) is to feed ten poor people from the food you used to give to your family, or clothe them or free a slave. Whoever is unable to do so, then (his expiation) fast three days. That is expiation of your oaths when you swear. And keep your vows. Thus Allah explains His laws to you so that you may be grateful (to Him).”

The brief interpretation according to the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia is as follows.

“This verse explains various kinds of expiation or fines for anyone who violates an oath that is said consciously and intentionally. However, this expiation does not apply to unintentional oaths. Allah will not punish you, O you who believe, because of your oaths that you accidentally uttered, such as saying, “No, by Allah,” or “True, by Allah,” but He will punish you because of oaths that you deliberately . If you in taking the oath really intend to swear an oath, then the expiation, the penalty for breaking the oath so that your sin of the oath is forgiven by Allah, is to feed ten poor people, whether you know them or not, that is, from the kind of food you used to give to your family, both in terms of quantity and type of food, or giving them new and suitable clothes, or freeing a slave, both male and female. Whoever is unable to do one of the three options for expiation, then his expiation is to fast for three days sincerely, hoping that Allah will forgive the sin of the oath he has ever uttered. That is Allah’s provision regarding the expiation of your oaths, if you really swear intentionally. And keep your oath so that you don’t easily swear, let alone swear falsely. Thus Allah explains His laws concerning oaths to you so that you may be grateful to Him for all the blessings that Allah has given you.” one of the three choices of expiation, then the expatriate fasts three days sincerely, hoping that Allah will forgive the sin of the oath he has ever uttered. That is Allah’s provision regarding the expiation of your oaths, if you really swear intentionally. And keep your oath so that you don’t easily swear, let alone swear falsely. Thus Allah explains His laws concerning oaths to you so that you may be grateful to Him for all the blessings that Allah has given you.” one of the three choices of expiation, then the expatriate fasts three days sincerely, hoping that Allah will forgive the sin of the oath he has ever uttered. That is Allah’s provision regarding the expiation of your oaths, if you really swear intentionally. And keep your oath so that you don’t easily swear, let alone swear falsely. Thus Allah explains His laws concerning oaths to you so that you may be grateful to Him for all the blessings that Allah has given you.”

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Types of Kafarat and How to Pay It

The following are the types of expiation based on Al-Lubab fil Fiqhis Syafi’i written by Sheikh Ahmad bin Al-Mahamili.

1. Dismissal of Zhihar

Kafarat zhihar is a type of expiation for a husband who equates his wife with his mother. A husband is prohibited from equating his wife with his mother. This means to appreciate the wife more and not to compare her with her mother.

This is based on Surah Al-Mujadilah verse 2, which has the following meaning.

“Those of you who make zihar their wives, (consider their wives as their mothers, even though) their wives are not their mothers. Their mothers are only women who gave birth to them. And indeed they have uttered a word that is wrong and lies. And verily Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Forgiving.”

Kafarat zhihar has two ways of paying, namely freeing Muslim female slaves. If you can’t, then you have to fast for two consecutive months. If you can’t afford it, you have to feed sixty poor people at the rate of one mud per person.

2. Condemnation of Murder

Murder here is an accidental killing. The expiation that is given to someone who accidentally kills is to free a Muslim slave girl. If you can’t, then fast for two consecutive months.

As for the basis for carrying out the expiation of murder based on the Koran surah An-Nisa Verse 92, along with the meaning of the sura.

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“And it is not proper for a believer to kill a believer (another), unless he is wrong (unintentionally). Whoever kills a believer because he was wrong (let him) release a servant who believes and (pays) the ransom handed over to his family (the killed), unless they (the family of the killed) waive the payment. If he (the killed) is from a people who are hostile to you, even though he is a believer, then (let the murderer) set free the slave who is a believer. And if he (the killed) is from a people (infidels) in whom there is an agreement (peace) between them and you, then (let the killer) pay the ransom handed over to his family (the killed) and set free the servant who believes. Whoever does not get (my servant), then let him (the killer) fast two months in succession as repentance to Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.”

3. The expiation of intercourse during the day in the month of Ramadan

During the fasting month, every married Muslim is prohibited from having intercourse during the day. In the rules of fasting, in addition to abstaining from eating and drinking, one must also refrain from lust. One of them is having sex during the day.

If someone is desperate to have intercourse, he will be fined or expiated. In the form of liberating Muslim female slaves. If you can’t, then you have to fast for two consecutive months. If you can’t afford it, you have to feed sixty poor people at the rate of one mud per person.

As for the book Safinatun Naja, it is explained that when someone has intercourse during the day, they have tarnished their fast. The following is the meaning of the fragment from the Safinatun Naja book.

“In addition to making up the qadha, it is also obligatory to kifarah ‘uzhma accompanied by ta’zir for the person who breaks his fast in the month of Ramadan for a full day with real intercourse and with that intercourse the perpetrator sins because of his fast.”

4. Yamin’s expiation

Yamin expiation or oath expiation is carried out when someone violates an oath or declares a false oath. As for how to pay expiation sumoah by feeding ten poor people with the same food as the family eats or giving clothes or freeing a slave.

If you can’t, then you have to fast three days in a row. The legal basis for the implementation of yamin expiation is in accordance with Surah Al-Maidah verse 89. Here is the meaning.

“Allah will not punish you for your unintentional oaths (to swear), but He will punish you for your oaths that you willfully take, then the expiation (penalty for breaking your oath) is to feed ten poor people from the food you used to give to your family, or clothe them or free a slave. Whoever is unable to do so, then (his expiation) fast three days. That is expiation of your oaths when you swear. And keep your vows. Thus Allah explains His laws to you so that you may be grateful (to Him).”

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