Types of Mental Illness and How to Treat and Prevent Them

Types of Mental Illness – Mental illness is a type of mental disorder that has different characteristics and treatment. Such as only needing conversation therapy and some of them require periodic drug consumption to prolonged therapy. Each type of mental disorder itself has various causative factors, both due to past trauma to genetic inheritance.

Mental or soul is also one of the things that must be taken seriously. Mental disorders or mental disorders are diseases that affect the emotions, mindset and behavior of sufferers. As with physical illness, mental illness also has a cure. In Indonesia, people with mental disorders are identified as ‘crazy people’ or ‘mentally ill’ and often experience unpleasant treatment even in shackles.

In fact, for people with mental disorders can be taken to the hospital to be given treatment. Mental or mental disorders can strike anyone. There is no exception for young people and even old people, men and women.

There are many factors that can trigger mental disorders or illnesses ranging from suffering from certain illnesses to experiencing stress due to traumatic events such as the death of a loved one, losing a job or being isolated for a long time.

Given that these traumatic events have often been experienced by many people lately, it’s no wonder that the COVID-19 pandemic is also often associated with the emergence of mental disorders in a person. The following is a review regarding various types of mental illness. Check out the information!

Causes of Mental Disorders

Diagnosis of Mental Disorders

To determine the type of mental disorder the patient is suffering from, the psychiatrist will conduct a psychiatric medical examination by interviewing the patient or his family. Questions to ask include:

  1. Symptoms experienced, including when the symptoms appeared and their impact on daily activities
  2. History of mental illness in the patient and his family
  3. Events experienced by the patient in the past that precipitated the trauma
  4. Drugs and supplements that have been or are being consumed
  5. In order to rule out the possibility of other diseases, the doctor will carry out a physical examination and supporting examinations. One of the supporting examinations carried out is a blood test
  6. Through blood tests, doctors can find out whether the patient’s symptoms are caused by thyroid disorders, alcohol addiction or drug abuse.

Kinds of Mental Illness

After carrying out a number of examinations, the doctor can determine the type or type of mental illness the patient is experiencing. Of the many types of mental disorders, some of the most common are:

1. Depression

Depression is a mood disorder that causes sufferers to constantly feel sad. Unlike ordinary sadness that lasts for a few days, feelings of sadness in depression can last for weeks or months.

2. Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes hallucinations, delusions and confusion in thinking and behaving. Schizophrenia makes sufferers unable to distinguish between reality and their own thoughts.

3. Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are mental disorders that make sufferers feel excessively and continuously anxious or afraid in carrying out daily activities. People with anxiety disorders can experience panic attacks that last a long time and are difficult to control.

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4. Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a type of mental disorder characterized by mood swings. People with bipolar disorder can feel very sad and hopeless at times, then very happy at other times.

5. Sleep Disorders

Sleep disturbances are changes in sleep patterns that interfere with the health and quality of life of sufferers. Some examples of sleep disorders are difficulty falling asleep (insomnia), nightmares (parasomnias), or falling asleep very easily (narcolepsy).

6. Eating Disorders

Eating disorders occur when sufferers lose control over the quantity of food they consume, either continuously without stopping or even not wanting to eat until they regurgitate the food they enter so that their body lacks food nutrition. This food disorder can also affect the physique so that you cannot carry out physical activities as usual due to a lack of nutritional intake.

7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

This type of mental disorder makes sufferers have to do repetitive activities. If not then the sufferer will suffer from great anxiety. This disorder can happen to anyone, both adults, teenagers and even children.

8. Personality Disorders

This personality disorder causes sufferers to have patterns of thought and behavior that are not normal and are difficult to change. People with this disorder have difficulty understanding situations and other people, so they are often unable to blend in with their social environment.

9. Tourette’s Syndrome

This type of mental disorder makes sufferers do tics, namely repetitive speech or movements that are beyond the sufferer’s control. This can occur in children aged 2-15 years and is more common in boys than girls.

10. Psychosomatic

This type of mental disorder raises physical problems and the sufferer’s own way of thinking. The initial symptoms of this patient begins with anxiety, anxiety, stress to depression. Not only adults but children can also be affected by this disorder. Physical problems that arise from this disorder are fatigue, muscle pain, shortness of breath and sweaty palms. Sometimes they also worry excessively when the complaints are mild.

11. Factitious

Also known as factitious disorder, this type of mental disorder is a serious illness that prompts sufferers to act as if they have a physical or psychological illness. A person with factitious disorder deliberately fakes various illnesses to get attention. People with this disorder will not hesitate to hurt themselves so they can undergo unnecessary operations.

12. Dissociative

This type of mental disorder loses continuity between thoughts, actions, memories and identities. This disorder is often experienced by someone who is deeply traumatized as a form of self-defense from the trauma.

13. Post-Traumatic Stress (PTSD)

This mental disorder is caused by a traumatic event that causes the sufferer to become hysterical when he sees the same or almost similar event occurring. Distractions can seriously interfere with daily activities of sufferers and cause emotional distress.

14. Impulse Control

This type of mental disorder can be interpreted as a person’s difficulty in restraining himself from always being aggressive. People with this disorder have difficulty controlling themselves so they have difficulty controlling themselves and others.

15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity is a mental disorder that causes sufferers to have difficulty focusing, impulsivity and hyperactivity which often interferes with the activities and achievements of sufferers. The main cause of attention deficit hyperactivity is still not known with certainty.

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But generally this mental disorder can occur due to genetic and environmental factors. ADHD can also occur in adults as well as in children. Mental Disorders are often underestimated because they have no visible or visible impact to ordinary people directly. Therefore it is very important for you or sufferers to get proper attention and treatment. If you experience one of the mental states above, you need to consult a doctor.

Complications of Mental Disorders

Mental disorders can cause serious complications, both physically, emotionally and behaviorally. In fact, one mental disorder that is not treated can trigger other mental disorders. Some of the complications that can arise are:

  1. Unhappy feeling in life
  2. Conflicts with family members
  3. Difficulty forming relationships with other people
  4. Alienated from social life
  5. Addiction to cigarettes, alcohol or drugs
  6. Desire to commit suicide and harm others
  7. Getting into legal and financial troubles
  8. Vulnerable to illness due to decreased immune system

Treatment of Mental Illness

Treatment for mental disorders depends on the type of disorder experienced and its severity. In addition to cognitive behavioral therapy and drug administration, doctors will also advise patients to live a healthy lifestyle. Here are some treatments that can be done by someone who is affected by mental disorders.

1. Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to change the patient’s thought patterns and responses from negative to positive. This therapy is the main choice for dealing with mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, depression and schizophrenia.

As is the case in many cases that have occurred, doctors will combine cognitive behavioral therapy and drugs, so that treatment becomes more effective.

2. Drugs

To relieve the symptoms experienced by patients and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy, doctors can prescribe the following drugs:

  1. antidepressants, eg fluoxetine
  2. Antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole
  3. Anxiety relievers, eg alprazolam
  4. Mood Stabilizers, such as lithium

3. Lifestyle changes

Living a healthy lifestyle can improve sleep quality for people with mental disorders who also experience sleep disorders, especially when combined with the above treatment methods. Some steps that can be taken are:

  1. Reducing sugar intake in food
  2. Eat more fruits and vegetables
  3. Limit consumption of caffeinated drinks
  4. Quit smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages
  5. Manage stress well
  6. Doing exercise regularly
  7. Eat a snack with a small amount of carbohydrates before bed
  8. Sleep and wake up at the same time every day

If you have a mental disorder that is severe enough, then the patient needs to be hospitalized in a mental hospital. Likewise, if the sufferer cannot undergo independent treatment or a mental disorder causes the sufferer to take actions that endanger themselves and others.

Prevention of Mental Illness

Not all mental disorders can be prevented. However, there are several steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of mental disorders, namely:

  1. Participate actively in the association and activities that are liked
  2. Share with friends and family when facing problems
  3. Exercise regularly, eat regularly and manage stress well
  4. Establish a regular sleep and wake schedule each day
  5. Follow exercises to calm the mind or relaxation, for example by meditation and yoga
  6. Don’t smoke and don’t use drugs
  7. Limit consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated drinks
  8. Take the medicine prescribed by the doctor according to the dosage and rules of use
  9. Check with a doctor or psychologist to undergo an initial mental health screening or if symptoms of a mental disorder appear.