Needs Theory – Sinaumed’s, every human being must have needs that must be met, right? To meet these needs, humans carry out economic activities, whether working, running a business, trading, and others. What needs must we fulfill? Well, this time we will discuss the theory of needs in depth.
Definition of Needs
Needs, if interpreted freely, are all things that humans need in order to maintain and develop their lives. The fulfillment of these needs can be achieved by achieving welfare. Of course, everyone’s needs are different depending on natural conditions, place of residence, individual traits and characteristics, lifestyle, religion, and culture.
The basic principle of need is the desire possessed by humans. If a need has been fulfilled, another new need will emerge. It can be said, humans have multilevel needs.
There are many human needs. Starting from primary needs which include clothing, food and drink, and housing. Now the primary needs increase education and health services. Besides that, secondary and tertiary needs such as motorized vehicles, communication services, gadgets , and others. In fact, not only needs that are concrete, humans also need self-existence, motivation, being appreciated, respected, considered to exist, and so on.
Needs are divided into several types, namely based on the intensity of use, nature, time of fulfillment, subject, and socio-culture. Each type has a few more needs.
Based on the intensity of use, needs are divided into primary, secondary and tertiary needs. Based on the nature, needs are divided into physical and spiritual needs. Based on the time of fulfillment, needs can be divided into present, future, uncertain time, and forever or all time needs. Based on the subject, needs are divided into individual and group needs. And according to socio-culture, needs are divided into social and psychological needs.
Various Theory of Needs According to Experts
The importance of needs and their fulfillment moves experts to spark theories that explain needs. We will discuss these theories in more depth in the explanation below. But before we start, it should be noted that the theories below may complement each other, or they may contradict each other.
1. Maslow’s Theory of Needs
Among the existing needs theories, Maslow’s needs theory is one of the most popular theories. Lots of academics or writers use Maslow’s theory of needs when talking about needs.
Is Abraham Maslow, an expert in psychology, who sparked this theory. This American psychologist who is also famous for his self-actualization psychological theory arranges a hierarchy (levels) of needs into five levels. The levels are arranged in a pyramid-shaped scheme.
Maslow’s hypothesis states that a person will try to fulfill a level of need if the lower level of need has been met. For example, if someone is thirsty, then he will tend to find ways to satisfy his thirst and thirst. He can withstand hunger for a longer time because the need for water is greater than the need for water. If a need at one level is not met or is not satisfied, the person can return to the level below it.
Maslow stated that the fulfillment of needs can be achieved in two ways. First, motivation due to deficiencies or what can be called deficiency motivation . This motivation encourages people to overcome problems by realizing that there are conditions that are not ideal and must immediately rise from these conditions.
Second, motivation due to the desire to develop or can be called growth motivation. This motivation encourages a person to develop and grow so as to improve his welfare. In order to achieve prosperity, one must increase one’s capacity.
In his needs theory, Maslow explained in detail about human needs. For more details, we refer to Maslow’s explanation below.
a. Physiological Needs _
Physiological needs are needs that are at the lowest level that must be met by a person such as eating, drinking, breathing, and other biological needs such as sleep, a smooth metabolic system, and others.
Physiological needs are basic needs that absolutely must be met because these needs are very basic needs. Without the fulfillment of this need, humans will not be able to carry out life activities smoothly.
b. Security Needs _
The second level need after physiological needs is the need for safety. A person needs a sense of security so that he can carry out activities that support him to meet other needs.
Examples of the need for security include protection, freedom from fear, distance from threats, stability, and security from disturbance. In this case, the existence of traffic rules, work safety regulations, health protocols, social norms, religious norms, and customary norms exist to fulfill a sense of security in living life. Thus, the danger posed by accidents, war, crime, epidemics, riots, and others can be minimized.
This need for security cannot be completely fulfilled one hundred percent, therefore this need is different from physiological needs. The need for security cannot completely eliminate the fear of threats such as natural disasters or the harmful actions of others.
c. Needs of belonging and social ( Belongingness and Social Needs )
Social needs are at the third level after the need for safety. After the need for security is met, humans need a sense of belonging, affection, and social interaction. This need arises automatically.
This need includes the desire to interact with others. As we understand by Sinaumed’s, humans are social creatures. This means that humans cannot live alone and always need other people in their life. During social interaction, someone wants to be loved.
d. Self- Esteem Needs
Self-esteem needs are advanced needs. When social needs have been met, humans need self-esteem needs . The need for self-esteem calls for self-confidence, self-fulfillment, strength, confidence, and self-respect.
The need for self-esteem is divided into two types. First, the need for achievement, the ability to provide confidence, independence, freedom, authority, and life. Second, the need for recognition, respect, appreciation, status and good name.
e. Self Actualization Needs ( Self Actualization )
The need for self-actualization is the highest level of needs. And as Maslow’s theory of needs, this fifth level need can only be met if the four previous levels of need have been met.
This need for self-actualization encourages a person to release all of his potential into works. How to unleash this potential by actualizing themselves in the things they like.
Sinaumed’s, those of you who want to dive deeper into Abraham Maslow’s thoughts can read this book.
2. Gardner Murphy’s Theory of Needs
Gardner Murphy is a psychologist from the United States who specializes in social and personality psychology and parapsychology . Murphy explained, human needs are divided into four groups. The four groups are basic needs, needs for activity, sensory needs, and the need to refuse.
The basic needs referred to in Murphy’s theory of needs are needs related to biology or important parts of the human body. For example, eating to meet energy, drink to quench thirst, and air to breathe.
The need for activity gives the sense that humans need activity to keep moving. As one of the characteristics of moving creatures, humans need to move.
Sensory needs are human needs related to receiving a response or the surrounding environment. For example, the need for color in life, sound, music, and other needs that are oriented towards the surrounding environment.
The need to refuse means that humans have the need to reject all things that are not in accordance with their will. For example, humans need to reject pain, fear, lies, threats, and so on.
3. Virginia Henderson’s Theory of Needs
The full name of the originator of this theory is Virginia Avenel Henderson. She is a nurse from the United States. Virginia initially entered nursing because of her interest in caring for injured soldiers in the First World War.
Friends who want to know how to communicate with nurses can read our recommended book.
This intention led him to define nursing and its goals. Through her profession, Virginia explains that the goal of nursing is to work independently to provide health services to clients. So that clients can return to their activities independently within a short period of time since the start of treatment.
Virginia considers that a human life consists of four components. The four components include biological, psychological, cultural, and spiritual. Based on these four components, Virginia Henderson explains 14 basic human needs.
The very first need is to be able to breathe normally. Second, eat and drink enough. Third, defecate normally. Fourth, maintaining motion and maintaining the desired position. Fifth, adequate and quality sleep and rest.
While the sixth need, humans need appropriate clothing according to their personality and condition. Seventh, maintain body temperature within the normal range and choose clothing that suits your condition. Eighth, maintain personal hygiene and care for appearance. Ninth, make sure he is safe from harm or harm to others.
Then the tenth need is to establish good communication with others through the expression of emotions, needs, expressing opinions, and expressing concerns. Eleventh, can worship according to belief calmly and comfortably. Twelfth, work in order to make ends meet. Thirteenth, recreation or refreshing. And finally, fourteenth, fulfill curiosity, live a normal life, and get health services and facilities easily.
4. Henry Murray’s Theory of Needs
This need theory was coined by Henry Murray, a psychologist from the United States. Murray is known to have taught at Harvard University for more than 30 years. He is famous for the theory of personality psychology. Although he has a bachelor’s degree in medicine, a master’s in biochemistry, and a doctorate in biochemistry, he is well versed in psychology.
When he taught at a school, the government called him to conduct a selection by interviewing soldiers who wanted to join the second world war. In 1930, he and Christiana Morgan, who would become his wife, developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
According to Murray, human needs are divided into three major groups, namely:
1. Needs that are motivated to achieve power, wealth, achievement, knowledge, prestige, and the like.
This kind of need includes the need for achievement, attainment or acquisition, aggression, order, overcoming weakness, dominance, interpretation, recognition, and understanding.
2. Needs that are motivated by love, admiration, sympathy, dependence, and affection.
These types of needs include the need for affiliation, respect, nurturing, sexual satisfaction, and help in times of trouble.
3. Needs that are motivated by the desire for independence, stimulation, change, and play.
These types of needs include the need for autonomy (the need to be free and independent from others), change, adventure, travel, existence and play.
5. Malcolm S. Knowles’ Theory of Needs
Malcolm Shepherd Knowles is someone who is known as an adult educator. In educating adults, he adopted the andragogy method from Alexander Kapp who was a teacher from Germany.
Andragogy itself is an art that applies knowledge to teach adults. In andragogy, adult participants are considered to have a need to be independent and self-directed.
Thus, today’s adult students learn independently relying on themselves. The teacher only directs how to direct the interaction to the participants. Therefore, such a system is suitable for non-formal education.
Knowles, with this capacity, describes that humans have several needs, namely:
1. Physical Needs
Physical needs are the easiest needs to be accepted by the senses. In practice in the world of education, physical needs relate to sight, hearing, and rest.
Vision will be less comfortable if the student’s writing is too small or hard to read. Students’ hearing will be disturbed if a chair is shifted causing a squeak of friction between the chair and the floor. And rest is needed if students are tired.
2. Developing Needs
In his theory of needs, Knowles said that the need to develop is a basic need for every human being. Someone who does not have the opportunity to develop feels that he has no hope of living, or at least feels that his life is useless.
The need to develop is a strong motivating factor for adults to want to learn and gain knowledge. Education basically makes a person to develop in terms of knowledge, skills, discipline, interests, talents and passion for experimentation. By knowing new things from the learning process, a person can feel a development within himself.
3. The Need for Security
The sense of security referred to by Knowles is a sense of security both physically and psychologically. Someone tends to look for safe conditions. If the safe conditions are not guaranteed, someone will withdraw.
4. The Need to Gain New Experiences
The search for new experiences discussed this time could be the opposite of the need for security. This is because new experiences sometimes invite risks that negate safe conditions.
Routines that are usually done repeatedly and continuously can cause boredom and boredom. If left alone, boredom can drive someone to be indifferent, impulsive, and easily angry. Therefore, looking for new experiences needs to be done. By seeking new experiences, someone will visit new places, meet new friends, new ideas, new ways, and so on.
5. The Need to Be Liked
An individual has a tendency to be liked. So that he will try all kinds of ways to be liked by others.
6. The Need for Recognition
Recognition from others can give a person a sense of worth. Because of this need, a person is driven to get a position in a group or society so as to get status and attention from others.
For those of you who want to know more about basic human needs, this book is for you.
Sinaumed’s, our discussion on the theory of needs is over. With our collection of the best books, sinaumedia is ready to become #FriendsWithoutLimits in exploring the world of science.
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Author: Nanda Iriawan Ramadhan