Human Needs: Definition, Types, Examples and Means of Satisfaction

Understanding Human Needs – Humans as living beings, will definitely have various needs as life support. We often know this, namely that humans have needs for food, clothing, shelter, and other needs to meet the satisfaction of life’s needs with the achievement of a prosperous life. Basically life refers to how a person’s efforts to meet their needs in order to survive.

There are several forms of human needs, Sinaumed’s needs to know and understand them in order to maximize these needs properly. The following is an explanation of the various human needs, to examples:

Definition of Human Needs

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, need means something that is needed. So, human needs can be interpreted as something that is needed by humans, or human desires that must be fulfilled, in order to achieve spiritual and physical satisfaction for their survival. This need can be in the form of goods or services.

If humans can meet their needs, then it can be said, his life has reached prosperity. Likewise with prosperity, prosperity can occur, if most of the needs of human life are met. But prosperity here is different from wealth, right, sinaumedians.

If wealth refers to a sense of fulfilling most of the needs of human life, while wealth refers to the amount of property or material owned by a person. To better understand human needs, you can read the book Smk/Mak Kl.Xii Basic Human Needs K/13 Rev.

Various Human Needs

1. Human Needs According to Intensity

You need to know, it turns out that the need, there is intensity. So, based on the intensity, the needs are also still broken down into several groups, let’s see!

a. Absolute Necessity

Absolute implies, may not or may not, so absolute needs are needs that must be fulfilled immediately. If the needs are not met, the individual cannot survive. An example is the need to eat and drink.

b. Primary needs

Primary needs are also known as basic needs, which are human needs for a decent life. Primary needs, including the following: Food, food is the first and foremost primary need. Food can be obtained by processing from animal and vegetable sources.

Clothing, clothing has the meaning of clothing materials, so clothing is included in the primary human needs. Clothing serves to protect the human body from the outside environment, such as sunburn, cold weather, animal attacks, and also protects the body from immoral desires or thoughts.

Plank, synonymous with a house or a place to live. The house or residence serves as a place of refuge and place of activity. Boards are a primary need, even though they are owned by themselves, or rented from other parties.

As a primary need for humans, it is very important to maintain a healthy eating lifestyle because it can affect the body and also health. In the book Eat Don’t Just Be Filled with a Healthy Eating Lifestyle, you will be given information about various good foods to fulfill your daily nutrition.

c. Secondary need

Secondary needs are needs that arise after primary needs are met. Each individual has a variety of secondary needs, these needs depend on the desire and ability of each individual to fulfill. Secondary needs for individuals, such as vehicles, shoes, telephone, makeup, and many others.

d. Tertiary Needs

Tertiary needs are the next derivative of the group of human needs based on their intensity. Tertiary needs will arise if the primary and secondary needs have been met.

Usually tertiary needs are more inclined to satisfy the need for luxury goods that are part of entertainment. Included in tertiary needs are luxury homes, sports cars, branded clothes, vacations abroad and many other examples.

2. Human Needs Based on Time of Need

Needs based on time are not talking about duration here, sinaumedians. But will explain about the time. To be clearer, let’s look directly at it. This need is divided into three, namely:

a. Urgent needs

Urgent needs, may not be needs that were planned beforehand, these needs can appear at any time that are critical, urgent, or emergency, tend to force them to be fulfilled immediately. Could be related to individual lives, if this need is not met. For example, fulfilling the need for blood plasma for people infected with the Covid 19 virus.

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b. Needs Now

Almost the same as an urgent need, only the result is different, the present need is a need that must be met at this time, it cannot be postponed. For example, bringing people to the doctor for treatment, providing assistance to victims of natural disasters, before they go hungry.

c. Future Needs

Based on the time of need, this type of need is the most tolerant, because this need can be met at a later date, can be postponed, and is not urgent. But it’s good, if prepared now, or start from now. For example, insurance and investment.

3. Human Needs Based on Their Nature

The next grouping of human needs is human needs based on their nature. To be clearer, follow on!

a. Physical Needs

Surely you already understand, what is called physical, is related to the body or body. Physical needs are the needs needed by the body in order to fulfill physical satisfaction. For example, exercise, rest, clothing, and many others.

b. Spiritual Needs

As a physical companion, there is also a spiritual need. Spiritual needs are needs that are needed by the mind or soul, the effect if these needs are met is that humans get happiness. Examples are worship, entertainment, gathering with friends, and others.

4. Human Needs Based on the Subject

In this group, human needs are further divided into two types, as follows below.

a. Individual Needs

From the title, the definition is clear, meaning it is a requirement that is needed by each individual. Why is it called an individual need? Because every individual is born diverse and has their own needs.

Info: the needs of an individual are different from other individuals.

b. Collective Needs

Collective needs are needs that are used for the benefit of the people. For example, bridge construction, reservoir construction, road renovation, stadium construction.

5. Needs According to Socio-Cultural

The word socio above is closely related to social, or the social environment of the community, while culture is something that comes from the traditions of the local community, of course it also includes psychological aspects. So, these needs can be further divided into several needs as below.

a. Social Needs

Social needs are needs that arise because of the position of an individual in society, so that individual must be able to carry out various efforts, so that they are seen as equal. For example social donations, motorized vehicles, and so forth.

b. Psychological Needs

Psychological needs are needs related to spirituality, or the inner condition of a person. For example, the need to be accepted by others, the need to be loved, the need for freedom and security.

Tool for Satisfying Human Needs

Come on, let’s see an explanation of the means of satisfying needs in the form of goods and services.

1. Goods

Goods are anything tangible or bodily. So, goods are various objects that have a physical form, and are used by people to meet their needs.

Characteristics of goods:
Tangible or bodily.
Has value and benefits that can be felt, when used.
When used, the value, benefits and physical form will decrease and eventually run out.

2. Services

Services do not have a physical form, services are actions that provide everything that is needed by other people, in general these services are related to one’s skills.

Service Features:

  • It is intangible, so it cannot be touched.
  • It can only be felt, the satisfaction is in the form of the mind.
  • It will never run out

For example goods delivery services, haircut services, transportation services, and other services.

Factors Influencing Human Needs

As living beings, humans have a variety of needs, these needs are influenced by several factors, these factors cannot stand alone, but are interrelated with each other, according to the situation and conditions that are happening. Want to know what factors influence human needs? Come on, follow again.

1. Factors of Natural Conditions

Nature has a role that influences human needs. Natural conditions related to the needs that must be met by humans. Humans will make efforts and efforts to meet needs that are influenced by the natural conditions in which the individual lives.

For example, people who live in highland areas, such as Dieng, of course, need thick blankets or clothing to be able to withstand the cold. Meanwhile, for people who live in coastal areas, or beaches, which have a tropical climate, they definitely need clothes that are thin or made from cold.

2. Religious Belief Factors

A religious teaching or belief held by a person has different needs from one another. For example, Muslims do not eat any food containing pork, because Islamic teachings prohibit it, or the term is haram.

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For Hindus, it is forbidden to consume all foods containing beef. From this incident, we can see the difference in needs between one and the other. Every religion requires a tool to fulfill its needs as a means of fluency in carrying out worship.

3. Factors of Customs

A custom that arises from a hereditary tradition, and applies in society will greatly affect the needs of every human being. Because, tradition will influence the behavior and life goals of a group of people who are in a certain place.

These differences in customs and traditions lead to differences in needs between one another. For example, a wedding ceremony using Javanese customs is of course different from those using Sundanese customs.

4. Occupational or Professional Factors

Each profession or job has its own characteristics. Various professions exist, have diverse needs as well. For example, a doctor needs a stethoscope to support his work.

A farmer has different needs from a doctor, a farmer needs hoes, tractors, fertilizers and seeds to support his profession.

5. Level of Civilization

The development of the times will always be followed by the development of human civilization. The higher the civilization in society, the quality of human needs will also increase. This can happen, because modernization makes the quality and quality of the needs that a person has, higher.

If in prehistoric times, human needs were still relatively few, as time goes by and the development of civilization occurs, humans will try to fulfill their life needs until they achieve prosperity.

For example, in the past humans did not need vehicles, now vehicles are the main and important need, because they can streamline the time they have so that activities become lighter or can reach their destination quickly.

In addition, the needs of modern humans certainly have increasing tastes, thus making humans have higher quality needs.

6. Income Factor

Everyone who works must have income, even though the size of the income is not the same. The type of work and one’s position determines the size of one’s income.

The factor of the size of the income that is owned by a person, is very influential on the needs of each. For example, people with a mediocre income, of course, will focus more on meeting their basic needs.

But for people who have more income, the level of needs will be greater, even though the size of each individual’s needs can be said to be relative. However, people with higher incomes are more flexible in meeting their needs other than primary needs.

7. Age factor

Human growth starts from birth, babies, children, adolescents, adults, to parents. The age factor influences the necessities of life. Needs will follow the growth of one’s age.

For example, the needs of a baby are different from adults. The needs of children, are also different from the needs of parents.

8. Satisfaction Level Factor

Humans are born with unique characteristics, one with another is never identical. Likewise with the fulfillment of the level of satisfaction. Every human being has a different level of satisfaction.

The level of satisfaction is what affects the needs of life that is owned. Someone who is not easily satisfied with what they already have, must have a greater level of need than someone who is easily satisfied with what that person has.

9. Hobby or Passion factor

The reason a person has different needs, the next is the hobby and hobby factor. Hobbies and interests vary widely, for example, a person who enjoys playing guitar music will need a guitar, not a fishing rod.

Someone who has a hobby of painting, will need a canvas, paint, and brush, not a guitar. Likewise with someone who likes climbing mountains, of course he needs a large backpack, jacket, mountain pants, shoes, tents, and other mountaineering equipment, not canvas or paint.

10. Educational Factors

Education in our country is tiered, from early childhood to tertiary education. This level of education has contributed to one’s needs. For example, PAUD children have different needs from SD children, SD children also have different needs from students, as well as students, whose needs are different from PAUD children.

11. Gender factor

By nature, humans were created to have men and women. Each has a different birth nature. In plain view, the physique of men is different from women. It can even be said, the needs of women can be more than the needs of men.

Women need equipment to make themselves up, such as make up, bags, dresses, jewelry, and more. Dominant women do not like activities that involve physical business or hard activities. Meanwhile, men themselves tend to prefer things that involve physical affairs, such as martial arts, rock climbing, automotive, and others.

Scarcity and Human Need

sinaumedian, from various types of human needs, it turns out that not all of them can be fulfilled. Why is that? Because, human needs are unlimited, while the availability of goods we want is limited. Well, this limitation is called scarcity.

For example, because production is constrained, we often don’t find fuel oil on the market, to the point that long queues arise to get this fuel. Now this is what is called scarcity. I hope you understand the need and all the supports.

Books Related to “Human Needs”

The following are some recommendations for economics books at the sinaumedia Bookstore.

1. Introduction to Micro and Macroeconomics Revised Edition

2. Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory

3. Easy to Understand and Implement Macroeconomics Accompanied