The term paradigm is a word that is rarely used in the conversations we have every day. Even so, we still have to understand the true meaning or meaning of this term. So that when the term is used, we can find out what it means or means. In general, this term tends to refer to the world of mindsets or problem-solving techniques that are carried out by people. This term was first introduced by a scientist named Thomas Kuhn through his book entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolution.
When it was first introduced, this term was not clearly explained by Thomas Khun. At that time, paradigm was only explained as the key terminology used in the development model of science. Until a few moments later, the term paradigm was clearly defined by Robert Friedrichs, who was the first to express clearly what a paradigm was.
In essence, this term is closely related to the basic principles that will later determine various kinds of human views of the world as part of the bricoluer system. A paradigm generally includes three main elements, namely elements of methodology, elements of epistemology, and also elements of ontology. By using these three elements, humans use paradigms to gain various knowledge about the world and various phenomena that occur in it.
What is Paradigm?
In training the ability to think, a person must have a paradigm within himself. Because, this is part of the pattern of intellectual discipline. Where a paradigm is a model in the theory of science, you will probably also understand it as a frame of mind. The function of the paradigm is to become the basis for someone to interact with their environment. This is in accordance with the purpose of the paradigm itself, which is to form a frame of mind that approaches and engages with various kinds of things or with other people.
On the other hand, we can also interpret this as a form of a person’s mechanism for looking at something, which will later influence their thinking. In research, paradigm theory can help scientists to work within a broader theoretical framework.
This term itself appeared since the Middle Ages in Continental Europe, to be precise in England. The term, paradigm, is an absorption that comes from the Latin word paradigm, which means a model or pattern. In Greek, paradeigma or para and deiknunai which means to compare, side by side (para), and show (deik).
From the absorption of the Greek language, it can be interpreted that a paradigm is a person’s perspective on himself and also his environment which will influence him in thinking (cognitive), acting (affective), and behaving. In addition, a paradigm can also mean a set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that are applied in viewing reality in the same community, especially in intellectual disciplines.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a paradigm is a model in scientific theory. Not only that, in everyday conversation, the term paradigm is thinking. Because, a paradigm is the main model, pattern, or method for achieving several types of goals. Often the paradigm is referred to as the most characteristic or basic characteristic of a theory or branch of science.
Understanding Paradigm According to Experts
In order to better understand what a paradigm is, we can refer to the following expert opinions:
1. Thomas Kuhn
Thomas Kuhn was the first to introduce this term through his book entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolution. According to him, the meaning of paradigm itself is a basis for thinking, basic concepts, and also a basis for thinking that is used or adhered to as a model or basic concept for scientists in conducting their studies. In his book, Kuhn mentions that paradigm is the key technology used in the development of science.
2. Robert Friedrichs
Robert Friedrichs was one of the first to clearly define this term. According to him, the notion of a paradigm is a set of values that shape a person’s mindset as a starting point for his views and forms a person’s subjective image of reality. So that it can determine how to deal with this reality.
3. CJ Ritzer
According to CJ Ritzer, the meaning of paradigm is a reference or philosophical basis in the implementation of a motive or goal.
4. Egon G. Guba
According to him, the meaning of a paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that guide human actions in their lives.
According to Harmon, a paradigm is the most basic way to understand, think, judge, and also do things related to something special about reality.
According to Baker, a paradigm is a set of rules that establish or define boundaries. Where this term also describes how something must be done within these limits to be successful.
Paradigm in the State
In a state, one of the paradigms that is generally used is the Pancasila paradigm, especially in Indonesia. Pancasila as a paradigm which means making Pancasila a guide in living all aspects of life. This also accompanies various kinds of problems in the life of society, nation and state to achieve national goals.
The Pancasila paradigm will be used in the national development process to improve the quality of Indonesian society which is carried out in a sustainable manner based on national capabilities by taking advantage of advances in science and technology and also taking into account global challenges.
This refers to the personality of the nation as well as universal noble values to be able to create a national life that is independent, sovereign, just, prosperous and advanced with moral and ethical strength. As for one example that makes Pancasila a paradigm, namely during the legal development process.
In the process of developing the law, aspects such as protecting human rights, the existence of a constitutional structure, and also the division of tasks within the constitution must exist. So that Pancasila as a development paradigm has meaning as a basic belief that is used as a guide in planning, implementing, supervising, and the results of national development. Pancasila itself is the basis, guidelines, and also the goal of national development.
Referring to the meaning explained above, the following are some examples of paradigms that need to be understood, including:
1. Theoretical Reconstruction Paradigm
Within this paradigm, an existing theory or method is used again in new research but the old method must be relevant for there to be a clear continuity.
2. The Pyramid Paradigm
In this paradigm, a concept or method is carried out in stages, as is the case with various types of pyramids, starting from an inverted, layered, or double pyramid.
3. Qualitative Paradigm
This paradigm is often used in student studies, whether in assignments or theses with qualitative methods. In addition, this paradigm is used to find an overview of inductive social theory.
4. The Empirical Cycle Paradigm
This paradigm is a method or concept that can explain scientific phenomena in which the form is a cycle.
5. The Deduction-Induction Paradigm
Within this paradigm, the focus is more on qualitative methods for deduction, while quantitative methods for induction, which stages through data collection to making conclusions.
The following are various paradigms that need to be understood, including:
1. Political Paradigm
The political paradigm is a fundamental and general view that guides a person in thinking and acting in politics.
2. Economic Paradigm
The economic paradigm is the basic view of society regarding the economy and also various things related to it that can direct people to act and think.
3. Social and Cultural Paradigm
This paradigm is a basic philosophical view that directs people to act and think in everyday life.
4. Legal Paradigm
The legal paradigm is the basic view of society towards applicable law. So that it will direct people to think and also act according to the law.
5. Paradigm in the Field of Life between Religions
This paradigm is a basic and general view that directs people to think and act according to their religious teachings and respect one another.
Those are some explanations about the meaning of paradigms, types, and also examples of paradigms that need to be understood. Hope it is useful.