Narration is: Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Types, and How to Write

Narratives are – The two most identical things from narrative texts are folk tales and
bedtime tales which have been preserved until now.
Our country has a lot of folklore from
various regions.

For example, the story about the origin of Mount Tangkuban Parahu is the story of Malin Kundang.
In this story, Malin Kundang fell in love with his own mother and then proposed to her.
The mother, who was aware that Malin Kundang was her son, refused the proposal. Malin
was angry, then kicked a boat which then turned into a mountain.

There are many other stories that you may have memorized by rote. Such as stories about the
origins of the city of Surabaya, fairy tales of the mouse deer, the origins of Prambanan Temple, and the
Generally, these stories have wisdom and lessons that readers can take.

But what exactly is meant by narrative text? What are the characteristics, structure,
characteristics, elements, and what are the types?
You can find the answer in the explanation

What is Narrative Text?

In short, narrative text is a text that tells an event sequentially and can be fiction (imagination) or
Widjono (2007) explains the notion of narrative as:

“A description that tells the sequence of events, actions or circumstances from beginning to end so that
they are interconnected with one another.
The language used is usually narrative.
Examples include romance, stories, novels, biographies, or short stories.

Narrative text itself is made to convey information, provide knowledge, and to be used as entertainment for
readers or listeners.
Apart from that, this text can also be used to describe an event,
experience, or idea to others in detail based on developments over time.

From this brief explanation, it can be concluded that narrative is synonymous with:

  1. Story or stories
  2. Emphasize a character or actor
  3. According to developments from time to time
  4. Arranged systematically.

If Sinaumed’s wants to be more familiar with narrative texts, there’s nothing wrong with re-reading fairy tale
books in Indonesia.
For example, the book Collection of Indonesian Folk Fairy
compiled by the Folk Fairy Tale Contest Team.

Characteristics of Narrative Text

Although narration focuses more on stories about events or events, not all texts that contain events or
incidents can be called narration.
Because there are important characteristics that must be met
in order for a text to become a narrative text:

  1. Tells the events or experiences of the author
  2. Events or events that are told are events that really happened or imagination or a combination of both.
  3. Based on conflict
  4. Has aesthetic value
  5. Must be arranged chronologically.

Narrative Text Structure

In order for Sinaumed’s to better understand narrative text, you have to know how it is structured.
That way, Sinaumed’s will know which is the beginning, climax, and end of the story you are

This type of text is a text that has four main parts. First there’s the onboarding section,
then complications, resolutions, and lastly there’s the coda.
Check out the brief explanation
of the four sections below:

1. Orientation

Orientation is the stage of story introduction. Here the author provides various detailed
information about the characters involved, the background of the place, and also the time.

2. Complications

This section is usually the depiction stage which contains the beginning of the problem or conflict in the
Then there is also the reaction given by the figures involved in the problem.
And finally the climax or peak of the problem.

Now this complication is the most exciting part of narrative text. The reason is that here you
can find the ups and downs of the main character, how he got through the lowest point in his life, and what
moments made him rise again.

3. Resolution

Resolution is the stage of problem solving and is marked by reducing the conflict until it is finished or
Often, many people who read narrative texts expect a happy ending or completion.
However, narrative text can end in any way.

Some of them make the reader feel sad, some of which even have a tragic ending. Apart from
this, a narrative text reader will definitely get a deep impression from the story they read.

4. Coda (reorientation)

This is the stage of loading the moral message or message from the story being told. This
section is plural written as the closing of the story.
And most importantly, the coda in the
narrative text is optional or not required.

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Narrative Text Structure Character

You should understand the four sections described above because they can help make the process of writing
narrative text easier.
Not only that, you also need to know the characteristics of each part of
the narrative text, that way your story will be even more interesting to the reader or listener.

1. Characteristics of orientation parts

Orientation is the earliest stage in a narrative text. Usually this section is marked with the
phrase “once upon a time”, “in ancient times”, and so on, followed by a description of the character and the

In addition, the orientation section is also sometimes preceded by the problems the main character is
This type is more commonly used for narrative texts that tell true

2. Characteristics of the complicated section

This section indicates the emergence of a problem experienced by the main character and usually begins with
the phrase “one day” or something else, followed by a description of the problem.
infrequently, this section is written in a very complicated and tense way, the author even uses sentences
that can dramatize situations such as “he keeps crying”, “the deer refuses to eat for three days”, and so

3. Characteristics of the resolution part

In this section, usually the main character has succeeded in overcoming the problem he is facing.
At the very least, he had found a way to solve it. Well, this part is often marked by
the unity of the characters and get a happy life.

Because of that, narrative text writers use a lot of adverb phrases or adverbs such as “live happily ever after”
as well as adjectives that show happy feelings.

But there are also some narrative texts with phrases or words that show negative feelings such as sadness,
disappointment, emotions, and so on.

4. Characteristics of the sections of the coda

Coda does not always appear in narrative texts because it is optional. But if you want to make
a story that inspires or contains a moral message in it, it’s best to use a coda, because this section
usually contains a moral message that uses words with deep meaning.


In addition to the characteristics previously mentioned, narrative text must also have certain elements,

  • The main theme or idea of ​​the story you are going to tell. For example, such as stories
    about friendship, family, love, separation, or something else
  • Setting or information about the place and also the time that explains when and where the events in the
    story occur.
  • The plot or pattern of conveying events in the story. This flow can be forward, backward,
    or back and forth.
  • Characters or characters in the story. Usually there is a main character or protagonist,
    main character opponent or antagonist, and a mediator or tritagonist.
  • The point of view or direction of view and delivery used by the author in telling the story.
    Common points of view are first-person, second-person, and third-person.

Types of Narrative Text

You may have often read stories that touch the heart such as Beauty is a Wound from Eka Kurniawan, The Story of
the Sea written by Leila S. Choudori, Laskar Pelangi who made it abroad.

Stories and stories in narrative text can encourage readers to express various emotions such as sadness,
curiosity, happiness, and enthusiasm.
Now based on the variety of stories, narrative text can
be further divided into three types, namely:

1. Expository Narrative (Informative)

Expository narrative is a text whose main purpose is to convey information about an event accurately.
This type of narrative can expand the knowledge of readers and listeners.

In addition, expository narrative writers like to tell events that really happened and with data that can
be accounted for.
The featured character is usually only one person so that the story centers
on his life, starting from childhood to a certain end point.

As the name suggests, this narrative essay is filled with exposition. Automatically various
exposition provisions must also be in it.
For example, using logical language, referring to
existing facts, and being objective.

2. Artistic Narration

Artistic narrative is a type of narrative that has a fictional or nonfictional nature.
Generally, this narrative tells a story with the aim of being entertainment and providing a
beautiful (aesthetic) experience for the reader or listener.

3. Suggestive Narrative

The last is a suggestive narrative or a narrative that is made to convey a specific purpose, it can also
convey a hidden message to the reader or listener.
That way, those who read this type of
narrative will feel they are seeing the events being told directly.

Language Rules in Narrative Text

Narrative texts also have special linguistic rules that must be met, and these are widely applied by many
The language rules are:

  • Using a time pointer that points to the past (already past).
  • Using chronological conjunctions that provide information about the time sequence of events in the story.
  • Use action verbs
  • Use indirect speech to describe what the characters in the story say
  • Using mental or mind verbs. That is, these verbs can show the thoughts and feelings of
    each character in the story.
  • In general, using the first person point of view which makes the author seem involved in the events
    being told.
    That is why many narrative texts use the words “I”, “me”, and also “we”.
  • Some writers also use a third person point of view which makes them observers and all-knowing.
    This means that the author knows all the thoughts and actions of each character in the story.
    Therefore, writers who use this point of view usually choose the words “he” and “they” in their
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The rules of the Indonesian language are of course not only used in narrative texts, which is why Sinaumed’s needs
to read the book Special Dictionary of Indonesian Rules and Use written by Dr.
S. Effendi so that your writing skills get even better.

Steps to Write a Narrative Essay

Narrative is a story created or written for entertainment. So, narrative text must be packaged
as attractively as possible, for that you must be able to choose good ideas or events to retell.

To make this happen, Sinaumed’s can try the following two quick tips:

  • Look for sources of inspiration from events that occur in everyday life. Then create a
    story that makes the reader or listener curious and continue to follow the story until it’s
  • In addition, make detailed story details so that readers or listeners have a clear picture of the
    events or situations in your story.
    For example, when the main character in the story hears
    a voice, explain what sound he actually heard.
    If necessary, add dialogue to make the
    situation seem more real.

Remember these two tips carefully when Sinaumed’s will write narrative text, after that learn every step you have to

1. Define goals

The purpose of writing this narrative text will determine the form of the text that you develop later.
Besides that, from this goal you can also target readers and media that are more appropriate.
Some of the reasons that make people write narrative text are:

  1. Share experiences with others
  2. Recalling one of the events or incidents that are very valuable
  3. Or to fulfill the duties of the teacher or lecturer

2. Determine the type of narrative text to
be used

Before starting writing, Sinaumed’s needs to determine the type of narrative text you will use.
Is the expository, artistic, or suggestive type. That way, the story you write won’t
stretch everywhere and focus on the main idea.

3. Choose an idea

As previously mentioned, you can get ideas from events or incidents in everyday life. Both
what you have experienced yourself and from the experiences of others.

In choosing ideas, you should focus on one event that occurred in a certain period of time. So
that the stories you write are more focused and easily understood by readers or listeners.

Some examples of ideas that you can develop into narrative text include:

  1. Funny, embarrassing, or sad events that happened at school.
  2. Events that are happening around you.
  3. The mysterious events that Sinaumed’s experienced with his family

4. Develop ideas

So that the ideas you choose can be developed to be more interesting, you can follow the following methods:

  • Draw the background in detail. Whatever you see, hear, and feel
  • Describe the main character in detail. Starting from the characteristics-appearance, how
    to dress, how to speak, posture, facial expressions, body odor-and the dialogues they say.
  • Write clearly and clearly what happened.
  • Write a moral message so that readers can learn from the text you write

So that you become an expert writer in developing ideas – especially for fiction stories, try reading the book
13 Fiction Writing Spells written by @ImperialJathee.

5. Compose the text

Compiling a narrative text can be started by making an outline that contains the important events that you
are going to tell.
Then choose the order or sequence of texts that you think best fits the
The order you can choose from is:

  • Write sequentially from the beginning of the story introduction
  • Write from the middle of the story
  • Write from the end of the story

6. Set a title

After finishing writing narrative text, you can immediately determine the title for the text.
So, at this stage you should be able to attract readers to know the contents of the story you are
writing in the following ways:

  • Using quotation marks
  • Focus on the meaning of the story
  • Quoting one of the dialogues or stages in the text you create

Now we have understood narrative and things related to narrative text.
Sinaumed’s can read books about writing by visiting
so you have #moreWithReading information.