Understanding the Definition to the Structure of Narrative Text

Narrative text structure – Based on its content, in Indonesian there are several types of text. One of them is narrative text or narrative text which contains a chronology of an event. You may have heard of narrative text or are even familiar with it. Understanding the meaning of narrative text is of course important for you to know. This is because narrative text appears frequently in a number of works of fiction and non-fiction.

For some people, maybe they don’t know more about narrative text. However, you don’t need to worry because on this occasion, we will discuss more about narrative text, from its meaning to its structure.


So, watch this review till the end, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Narrative Text

Narrative text is a type of Indonesian language text that is favored by the public, especially for students. This type of text is very popular because it contains interesting stories.

For those of you who are exploring and studying the types of text in Indonesian, you need to know what narrative text is. Narrative text is a type of text that tells an event based on time sequence (chronological), which can be fictional (imaginary) or non-fictional. The definition of narrative text is also known as narrative text, because narrative text is narrative in nature, which means it explains an event or event based on time sequence.

Meanwhile, narrative text based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) explains that the narrative text is narrative in nature. The meaning of narrative text can also be explained by outlining or explaining in an essay.

In addition, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) the meaning of narrative text can also be meaningful with prose whose subject is a series of events. In a narrative text has characters, plot and chronology of an event or event.

Narrative texts generally have the aim of entertaining readers, adding insight or simply providing information that is structured in narrative text. Meanwhile, narrative texts also have conflicts that can be in the form of fiction or non-fiction.

Narrative texts in nonfiction are usually in short stories or novels. Therefore, narrative text in literary works is usually in one part of the paragraph which describes the atmosphere or storyline itself.



Purpose of Narrative Text

In forming a story that is fun and easy to understand so that a series of events in making an imaginative story certainly requires a systemic structure that is easy to understand and fun.

The purpose and function of narrative text itself can be said to provide information as well as add knowledge, provide insight to the reader, and provide entertainment for the reader. Narrative stories can be in the form of discussing or with any various themes. This is because stories from narrative texts do not only happen in Indonesia.


Characteristics of Narrative Text

To understand narrative text, you need to understand the characteristics of narrative text. The following are the characteristics of narrative text.

  1. In accordance with its definition, narrative text must tell about an event, with several chronological events or an order of events .
  2. Shows the element of deed or action.
  3. In addition to the existence of several events, the text must be peppered with problems or conflicts that become the culmination of the narrative, as well as other narrative text structures.
  4. Arranged in the right order of time.
  5. A narrative must have text elements (characters, setting, plot, theme) which we will discuss together later.
  6. Trying to answer the question what happened.
  7. Narrative text can provide knowledge through storylines, how an event takes place.

Narrative Text Structure


Broadly speaking, the narrative text structure can be divided into four parts, namely orientation, complication, resolution, and coda. For more details, here is the full review.

1. Orientation / Orientation

Orientation is part of the story introduction, in which the writer provides information about the background of the place, time, and introduction of the characters. Through this orientation, the reader will get a little picture of the whole story or information.

2. Complications

Complications contain problems or conflicts that start to occur, until they finally reach the peak of the conflict. Usually, this is the fun part of a narrative text story.

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With this complication, the storyline becomes more interesting to read, so that the reader becomes interested in completing the story to the end.

3. Resolution

Resolution shows a decrease in conflict, where solutions or solutions to problems begin to appear, until they find an end. With a resolution, the reader will begin to relax and wait for the end of the story.

4. Coda / Coda / Reorientation

The coda in the narrative text structure contains the moral message or message of the story being told. Usually the coda is written as the closing of the story and is optional or not required.

Elements of Narrative Text

The following are the elements of narrative text that must be present in a narrative story, namely:

1. Theme

Theme is the main idea of ​​a story. Examples of themes that are often raised in narrative stories are love, family, friendship, separation, and so on.

2. Background

This setting is in the form of information on the place and time of the incident, which explains where and when the events in the story occur. Setting refers to the understanding of the place and social environment in which the events that are told take place.

3. Groove

Plot is a series of patterns of behavior to solve the conflict contained in the narrative. Usually the flow of a story can be forward, backward (the story starts from the end to the beginning, aka regressive), and combined (back and forth).

4. Characterization

Characterization, is the appearance of the characters listed in the narrative essay. Based on the character, there is usually a protagonist (main character), antagonist (against the main character), and tritagonist (mediator/neutral). With the presence of this character, the storyline becomes more interesting and creates conflict.

5. Point of view

Point of view is the direction of view and delivery of the author when telling a story. Can be in first person, second person, and third person.

Language Rules of Narrative Text

Apart from the elements above, you need to know that there are also elements of the language rules of narrative text. Here is the full explanation.

Verb / Verb

Of course there are various verbs used to describe what the characters in the story do.

Direct conversation / Direct Speech

This direct conversation is like dialogue between characters or characters in the story.

Time markers / Time signal and Conjunctions / Time conjunctions

Of course this is very important because narrative text is chronological, so it requires links and time sequence information.

Types of Narrative Text

In narrative text essays, generally there is something that actually happened or is just fiction. Therefore, there are various types of narrative text that are commonly known.

There are three types of narrative text, namely informative narrative text, artistic narrative, and suggestive narrative. For more details, here is the full explanation.

Expository / Informative Narrative

Expository and informative narration essentially aims to convey information by clearly elaborating an event. Sometimes expository narratives are distinguished from informative narratives, where expository narrative texts provide really detailed information with accurate data.

Artistic Narration

Artistic narratives can be fictional or non-fictional, usually telling a story to entertain and provide a beautiful (aesthetic) experience to the reader.

Suggestive Narrative

This suggestive narrative, as the name implies, tells something with the intention of influencing the reader by giving suggestions (influences/views).

After discussing the types of narrative text, the next discussion is how to write narrative text.

How to Write Narrative Text

The following is a way to write narrative text that Sinaumed’s can learn or apply.

  1. Finding and determining the theme and message to be conveyed.
  2. Define target readers.
  3. Make a design regarding the main events and form the appropriate flow on the schema you want to display.
  4. Assemble the main event sequence into sections such as opening, development, and ending.
  5. Make details and explanations about the main events in detail to support the story.
  6. Develop character schemes, characters, plot, setting, and points of view.
  7. Understand and understand how the rules of punctuation for each sentence in the story.
  8. Re-check the finished writing, whether there are errors or sentences that don’t quite fit.

Example of Narrative Text About Legend from a Region

Usually, each region has its own story or legend. For example, according to the folklore of the city of Surabaya, there is a story of a fierce fight between a shark named Sura and a crocodile named Baya, which is the story of the origin of the name Surabaya. Therefore, there is a statue of Sura and Baya, which is an icon of the city of Surabaya, which is located in the middle of the city of Surabaya.

If you are curious about the story, we will tell you about the story of Sura and Baya. Of course, every detail of the story and delivery in the media sometimes there are differences. Some say these two beasts are friends, some say they don’t.

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In addition, the animals they fight over can be different, whether it’s goats, deer, monkeys, or other prey animals. This time we will tell the story briefly by adapting the story of Sura and Baya.

The story begins in the province of East Java, there is a ferocious crocodile named Baya living in a river, where he hunts for food. The river that Baya lived in, empties into the sea, where a shark named Sura, the ruler of the sea that other fish fear, lives. Sura felt bored because he only ate fish every day. Out of curiosity, Sura finally went to the river and succeeded in preying on the young deer.

Sura said,  “Wow, it turns out the deer is really delicious”. Eventually Sura became addicted and often hunted other prey there. As time went on, Baya became suspicious because there were fewer and fewer prey, making it difficult for him to find food. Angrily, Baya tried to find out the cause.

One day while tracing the river, Baya saw Sura hunting monkeys. How furious Baya witnessed the incident, “Hey, Sura, this is my territory!” .

Seeing this, Sura, who did not accept it, turned against Baya and they fought. The two beasts were both strong, fierce fights ensued for days so that they both felt tired.

The end of the story, they made an agreement, to divide the territory, with the estuary as the boundary, and Sura returned to the sea. After months without problems, Sura began to miss the delicious prey animals around the river.

Initially, Sura circled the estuary first. However, the results were nil. He also returned to his hunting activities, sneaking and hunting prey animals on the banks of the river, for months. Even though Sura tried not to get caught, in time Baya finally found him. They came back fighting even more fiercely.

Bite after bite of their teeth that are so sharp shouted. Finally, Baya managed to bite Sura’s tail, so that he was seriously injured. Sura was in pain and went swimming to the ocean again. The area where Sura and Baya fought fiercely was later named Surabaya.

The impression that the reader gets after reading the imaginary story above is of course fun because they can imagine things that cannot materialize in the real world. Narrative text or imaginary story is a type of text that presents a unique and entertaining series of events.

The text can be made purely as a result of the author’s imagination or a combination of facts and the author’s imagination. Therefore, the function of imaginative stories is to entertain readers and provide lessons and lessons that can be learned by readers.

Example of Short Narrative Text

The following is an example of our short narrative text with a third person perspective:

To welcome this holiday, Lisa and her family went to stay at grandma’s house. Lisa was so happy to meet her extended family. In the evening Lisa sleeps with her sister, Linda in a room facing the courtyard.

“Linda, did you hear that?”


“It seems, there is a baby crying.”

“It’s impossible, here no one has a baby, and grandma doesn’t have neighbors.”

“I’m so scared, this house right, standing near the grave.”

That’s right, there really is a grave opposite grandma’s house. The baby’s crying suddenly got louder.

“Eh, I heard too, the sound of crying, sis.”

Lisa and Linda who heard the baby’s cry became afraid. They ended up not being able to sleep all night. The next day, they told their grandmother what happened last night. His grandmother laughed too.

“That’s the sound of the Meow, the sound of a cat sometimes is like a baby crying.”

Those are some examples of narrative text to make it easier for you to understand narrative text.


As previously explained that this narrative text can be formed because of the structure in it. The narrative structure, namely orientation, complication, resolution, and coda. Each of these structures has its own function, so that it can produce a story or information that is easy to understand.

Thus the discussion about the meaning to the structure of narrative text. Hopefully all of the discussion above is useful for Sinaumed’s as well as making it easier for you to create narrative text. However, to be able to produce a good narrative text, it takes some practice.

Do you want to find out more about narrative text? You can do this by reading a book. If you want to find a book about writing, then you can get it at sinaumedia.com .

As #FriendsWithoutLimits we always try to give the best. To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information.

Author: Yufi Cantika Sukma Divine