Migration Is: Definition, Causes, and Various Kinds

Migration is – The occurrence of people from one region to another can be considered a
very natural event.
This is known as migration. Within migration itself there is
transmigration as well as urbanization.
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Definition of Migration

Basic human needs consist of clothing, food and shelter. Clothing consists of clothing, food
consists of food, and boards consist of shelter.
The need for proper and comfortable housing
serves as shelter and shelter.

When choosing a place to live, there are various factors to consider. If a person is not
suitable to settle in an area or there are other motivating factors, then he can move or commonly known as

So, migration is a term used for the movement of people from one place to another for the purpose of settling
across political/state boundaries or administrative/part boundaries of a country.

If it crosses the borders of a country, it is called international migration. Meanwhile,
domestic migration is population movement that occurs within the boundaries of a country, both between
regions and between provinces, such as urbanization and transmigration.

Migration is also explained in the Law in Article 1 No. 6 of 2011 concerning Immigration.
Based on the law, immigration is defined as the traffic of people entering or leaving the territory
of Indonesia and its supervision in order to maintain the upholding of state sovereignty.

In the formulation of measuring population migration, it can be measured by several measures including mobility
rates, in-migration rates, out-migration rates, and net migration.

The term migration comes from the Latin “migratio” which means the movement of people between
However, this is not only movement from one country to country, but also
population movement from one place (country and so on) to another place (country and so

In addition, migration can also be said as an event where an organism moves from a biome or region that has
the same geographical or climatic characteristics which includes communities of plants, animals, soil
organisms, bacteria, and viruses to other biomes.
In simple terms, migration is defined as a
movement activity.

In many cases, organisms migrate to seek new sources of food reserves to avoid food scarcity that may occur due
to the arrival of winter or due to overpopulation or population explosion (the condition of too many people on
Earth, so that the existing resources are not sufficient to meet their needs). ).

Causes of Migration

Migration means the movement of people from one place to another by crossing national borders or
administrative boundaries within a country with the aim of settling.
Migration itself does not
just happen, there are still several causes. The following is an explanation of the reasons why people

1. Natural Disasters

Natural disasters can be experienced in an area. Natural disasters such as floods, volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, landslides and disease outbreaks can encourage people to migrate to safer

For example, many Acehnese did not want to live in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami disaster. They
can move to other areas that are considered safer to continue their lives.

2. Religion

Religion is the main thing in human life, because the purpose of human life in this world is for the
The purpose of religion is also to regulate our daily behavior to behave better and
better, so that in our worship there is no pressure from anyone.

Freedom to worship according to one’s religion and the need for mutual respect between religious
communities is a person’s capital to survive in a heterogeneous society.
If religious life is
not guaranteed for its continuity and security, then this will encourage someone to migrate.

3. Politics

Politics in an area is not the same. There is a region that considers politics to be normal,
there are those who consider politics to be unusual.
The meaning of the word unusual is that
after politics is over, the grudge is still there.
So that a problem will heat up.

It is this heated political condition in an area that can lead to anarchic acts. As a result,
residents of the area feel like moving to another area that is safer.

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4. Availability of Resources

In an area usually the resources vary. Therefore, making people need other resources that do
not exist in their area for survival.

For example, there is a gold mine in an area where people automatically want to find gold, therefore their place
of life also moves to where the gold is.

5. Employment

Humans live with the need to eat, drink, dress, shelter and other needs. So every human being
needs effort such as work to meet these needs.
For example, the need for school children will
certainly increase expenses, so to meet these expenses we have to work.

If jobs are available or are working outside the city from where we live, then we will go to places where
there are jobs for us.
Hence one of the reasons why employment affects migration.

6. Educational Facilities

The education taken is also one of the tools in finding a job that is in accordance with his education.
Although sometimes, in reality the jobs we have are not in accordance with their education.

However, at least most jobs match their education. Automatically people whose education is in
other places will follow the place where they study.

7. Stability and Security

People who live in an area will definitely choose a safe and peaceful place to live. In a
certain area or country there are things that are not safe to be made as a place to live.
people in unsafe places will look for safer areas, of course.

8. Work Location

People who have jobs outside the area will certainly choose to live in the area where they work.
Besides reasoning closer, but also saving costs, time and effort. So, it is chosen
closer to the place of work than away from the place of work which of the two has more benefits that are
closer to the place of work.

9. Development Interest Factors

Factors for the importance of development, namely migration that occurs because the area is affected by
development projects, such as the construction of dams for irrigation and hydropower.

10. Social Factors

Social factors are also one of the causes of migration, for example mixed marriages. Marriage
is worship for every religion.

This social factor of marriage will affect migration. Moreover, mixed marriages, for example
between Indonesia and Malaysia.
So, if one will settle in the country one person will

11. Population Density

In a developing or developed country, the problem usually faced is population density.
Likewise with the factors that cause migration including population density which must be overcome
by one way of migration.

This population density causes a person to live less comfortably, there is a lot of competition, so it will
be difficult for some to get a job.
Because it is difficult to get a job, many people will
commit various crimes.
That’s why population density must be overcome quickly.

Because, if it is not quickly resolved it will cause various problems including pickpocketing, robbery and
In addition, there are still many things that can happen due to excessive population

For example, it is because of this overpopulation that some people decide to move to less densely populated
Apart from getting a new atmosphere of life, this kind of thing is also very good for
supporting the population distribution program.

12. Desire to Improve Living Standards

In general, the reason why someone prefers to move to another area is for economic reasons.
One of them is the desire to improve the standard of living for the better. This is
usually felt by villagers, where he never gets a job.

In Indonesia alone, this phenomenon occurs every year. Many people from the villages will go
to the cities with the aim of finding work.
At first he wandered, but over time he would take
his family and then look for a place to live in the city where he worked.

For example, Central Javanese people move to Jakarta because that person’s livelihood is in Jakarta.

13. Unsuitable Geographical Circumstances

Geographical conditions or an unsuitable environment are also one of the causes for someone to migrate.
For example, someone has asthma that will relapse if he is in cold air. Then, that
person lived in a mountainous environment where the morning air was very cold.

Well, it’s possible that this person will suffer from asthma every morning. Thus, that person
might think about moving to another place, where the air around it is not too cold.

Types of Migration

Migration is divided into two, namely national and international migration. Here’s the full

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1. National Migration

National migration is the movement of people from one area to another but still within a country.
National migration itself can be divided into two, namely urbanization and transmigration.
Here’s the full explanation:

a. Urbanization

Urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban areas. People who do urbanization
are called urban.
The factors that affect urbanization are divided into pull factors and push
Urbanization pull factors, among others:

  • Job opportunities, especially outside agriculture, are quite widely available.
  • Labor wages are relatively higher than in the village.
  • Availability of life facilities, such as education, health, and economic facilities.
  • The city is the center of government, economy, and science and technology (IPTEK).

The occurrence of urbanization itself is caused by several factors, the following are the factors of

  • Agricultural land is getting narrower.
  • Limited employment opportunities, especially outside the agricultural sector.
  • Small labor wages.
  • Lack of life support facilities.
  • The desire of residents to improve life.

Urbanization has both positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts of urbanization

  • Reducing the population density of the village.
  • Reducing unemployment.
  • Increased manpower to facilitate urban development.
  • Improving the standard of living of villagers because part of their income returns to the village.

In addition to the positive impacts, there are also impacts from urbanization, including:

  • Every village lacks young manpower.
  • The lack of an educated workforce as a driving force for village development, because they become the
    urbanization of big cities
  • The higher the urban population density
  • Many establishments of slum houses
  • Increased poverty and crime rates.
  • Decrease in the availability of clean water
  • Increasing unskilled workforce.

b. Transmigration

Transmigration is the movement of people from a densely populated area to an area with a small population.
The objectives of organizing transmigration are:

  • Improving the welfare of transmigrants and the surrounding community.
  • Increasing and equalizing regional development.
  • Strengthen the unity and integrity of the nation.

There are several factors that cause transmigration, including:

  • Unequal distribution of population.
  • The standard of living of the population is still low.
  • A natural disaster occurred.

2. International Migration

International migration is the movement of people from one country to another or between countries.
International migration is divided into three, namely:

a. Immigration

Immigration is the movement of people into a country, or it can also be defined as the process of entering
foreign nationals into a country.

b. Emigration

Emigration is the movement of people out of a country.

c. Remigration

Remigration is the movement of people back to their place of origin.

3. Ruralization

Ruralization, namely the movement of people from cities to villages with the aim of settling.
Ruralization is the opposite of urbanization.

4. Evacuate

In addition to the types of migration mentioned above, there is another type of migration called
Evacuation is the movement of population that occurs due to threats due to the
dangers of war, natural disasters and so on.
Evacuation can be national or

5. Forensen

Forensen is also known as “nglaju”. Forensen or nglaju is an activity of people who live in villages
or out of town, but have a livelihood in the city and commute every day or don’t stay in the city.
There are various reasons why someone would do this forensen or nglaju, such as the difficulty
of finding housing in the city, the high cost of living in the city, and so on.

6. Tourism

Tourist is a term for people who are traveling to places of recreation. What is meant by
tourism is a person’s journey to tourist areas and stays for a certain period of time.

We often encounter this with foreign tourists who are interested in Indonesia’s natural tourism.
These foreign tourists spend a very long time in Indonesia to enjoy Indonesia’s natural scenery and
also learn about Indonesian culture.


Basically, the occurrence of migration can be said to be a natural thing. However, if it
occurs in large numbers and in close time, migration can cause losses.
Therefore, the
government must participate in managing the population.

That way, residents in a country can live more safely and peacefully. From the above
understanding it can be said that migration is the movement of people from one region to another.
Thus the discussion about the meaning of migration to its various kinds. Hopefully all
the discussion above can be useful as well as add to your insight.

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