Even though frogs usually look cute and harmless, there are several types of frogs that are poisonous in the world. In Indonesia alone, animals that can live in these two realms are often referred to as frogs, even though they are basically different.
The difference between Frogs and Toads
Although they are often considered the same, frogs and toads are two different living things. Frogs or what is known in English as frogs is a term for amphibians that come from the Ranidae tribe with the main characteristics of being smooth skin and being able to jump far. Meanwhile, frogs or toads are the names of amphibians that come from the Bufonidae tribe with the main characteristics of being rough-skinned and only being able to jump short.
But unfortunately, this difference only applies in England. Because the terms frog and toad in Indonesia are only used for species from the Ranidae and Bufonidae tribes. Therefore, the term frog in Indonesia is used for species from the Bufonidae tribe and the term frog is given to species from the Ranidae, Microhylidae and Rhacophoridae tribes.
So, to make it even clearer, here are some differences between frogs and kodo that need to be understood, including:
1. The body shape of a frog tends to be slimmer than a frog’s body, which is fatter and also round.
2. Frog skin tends to be smoother, while frog skin has nodules on its body parts.
3. The frog’s own habitat is in a tree, while the frog is on the ground.
4. The sound of frogs tends to be louder than frogs and this distinctive sound will usually be issued at the time of the arrival of the rainy season and also becomes a marker of the mating season.
5. The behavior of frogs tends to be more active than frogs.
6. On the frog’s tongue, there is an adhesive substance that is used to catch insects, while frogs will prey on insects in a close position.
7. Frog meat tends to be thicker than frogs according to their habitat.
After understanding the difference between frogs and toads, in the following we will discuss the species of poisonous frogs that exist throughout the world.
Characteristics and Characteristics of Poisonous Frogs
Frogs that contain poison in their skin usually have special characteristics compared to frogs that do not have poison in their bodies. Dangerous frogs will usually be active during the day and have body colors that tend to be bright. In addition to its bright color, the poison frog also has an aposematic pattern that serves to warn predators. The light color is related to the level of toxicity of the alkaloids in their skin.
Poisonous Frogs in the World
Most of the deadliest frogs in the world come from the rainforests of Central America and South America, namely the Amazon forest. The frog poison itself is often used by native Amazon tribes to hunt by smearing the tips of the arrowheads they carry.
The following is a list of poisonous frogs around the world, including:
1. Asian Toad or Asian Toad
This frog has the Latin name Duttaphrynus Melanostictus. In some areas, this poisonous frog is called bangkong under, Javanese frog, or Sundanese frog. For its own distribution is relatively very wide, covering the South and Southeast Asia region including Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and others.
The latest information about this poisonous frog is that it has a body size of up to 20 cm. Where this frog population has invaded the island area of Madagascar and disrupted the ecosystem and also populations of other animals such as snakes, lemurs, and eagles.
2.Golden Poison Frog
This frog has the scientific name Phyllobates Terribilis. Where this very deadly poison frog comes from Colombia and lives in rainforest areas with very high rainfall. This type of frog lives in groups, the body color itself is bright and looks very attractive even though behind it there is a very dangerous poison. Phyllobates Terribilis is an endangered species. Although usually golden yellow in color, several sub-species of this golden frog have various colors, such as orange and green.
3. Panamanian Golden Frog
The golden panama frog has a Latin name, namely telpus Zaketi. This type of poison frog is endemic to Panama and also inhabits along the slopes of the Cordillera mountain forests. The IUCN lists this golden panama frog in a very critical condition. Despite the fact that it has been considered extinct in the wild since 2007.
4. Splash-Back Poison Frog
The deadly poison frog in the next world is the Splash-back poison frog or which has the Latin name Ranitomeya Variabilis. This type of frog lives in the rainforests of Ecuador and Colombia. The color of this frog is very unique, namely the color gradations between red, green, yellow, and also orange with black patterns.
5. Granular Poison Frog
This frog, which has the scientific name Oophaga Granulifera, comes from the Dendrobatidae family. The habitat itself is in the forests of Costa Rica and Panama, namely in the form of lowland tropical forests. For the size of the body itself is relatively small, which is about 2 mm. On the skin, there are fine grains with a distinctive bright orange color on the head, body, and also the upper arms.
While the lower part including the legs and forearm is bluish green. The poison from his body is used to defend himself from enemies or predators. While the bright color on its skin is used as a warning to predators that its body contains a very dangerous poison.
6. Corroboree Frog
This type of frog consists of two species, namely Pseudophryne Corroboree and Pseudophryne Pengilley. This frog has the ability to produce its own poison and does not come from certain food sources like other types of poison frogs in the world. Both types of frogs come from the Southern Tablelands, Australia. These poisonous amphibians can produce alkaloids as a self-defense poison and also protect their skin from microbes. If this frog poison enters the predator’s body, it will be very deadly.
7. Black-Legged Dart Frog
Phyllobates bicolor is a poison frog that comes from West Colombia, to be precise along the San Juan river area. This type of frog is the second most poisonous frog in the world. Like other types of poison frogs, the body of this amphibian is also brightly colored, namely yellow or orange. Its habitat is in lowland forests with high humidity.
The poison itself can cause death in humans. It only takes 150 micrograms of venom to kill an adult human. Generally, the frog poison is used for hunting by applying the liquid that comes out of the skin to the tips of arrowheads or spears. The nature of the poison is that it can paralyze the respiratory system and also the movement muscles.
8. Blue Poison Dart Frog
This blue poison frog is usually also called the Blue Poison Arrow Frog. While its scientific name is D. tinctorius azureus which comes from Suriname. By local residents there, this one frog is known as okopipi. The body itself is medium-sized, which is 3 to 4.5 cm and weighs 8 grams. The skin color is bright blue and tends to be darker on the limbs. The bright colored skin is a sign that the body contains a lot of very dangerous poisons. Where the poison that is in the frog’s body comes out of the alkaloid glands and can paralyze and kill predators. The spots on the skin have different patterns in each individual and are useful for identification.
9. Phantasmal Poison Frog
The next toxic word comes from Ecuador, precisely from the slopes of the Andes mountains. This type of frog has a scientific name, namely Epipedobates tricolor, where this frog has a combination of bright colors. For the size of the body itself, which is about 22 mm with a wide head and a truncated muzzle and smooth skin. Then on the back it is usually green or yellow with longitudinal stripes. Its habitat is in tropical rainforests.
10. Yellow-Banded Poison Dart Frog
Dendrobates leucomelas is the scientific name of this deadly frog. This type of poisonous amphibian is spread in the northern region of South America, to be precise in Venezuela and is also found in Guyana, Brazil and East Colombia. The habitat of this frog species is in humid tropical rain forests near fresh water sources. This one word can remove poison from their skin. Where the poison is obtained from the type of arthropod they prey on. The poison itself is a very strong neurotoxin and can interfere with nerve impulses that cause heart failure.
11. Strawberry Poison-Dart Frog
The size of this poisonous frog tends to be smaller and red like a strawberry. The habitat of this type of frog is in moist lowland forests in Central America, such as Nicaragua, Panama, to Costa Rica. Meanwhile, the Latin name itself is Oophaga pumilio.
12. Sky-Blue Poison Frog
The word whose Latin name is Hyloxalus azureiventris is a type of poisonous frog endemic to Peru, to be precise in the Amazon basin in the San Martin region. On the body, there are dorsolateral lines that point backwards.
Thus an explanation of the various types of poison frogs that exist throughout the world. Hope it is useful.