Those Who Are Eligible to Receive Zakat Al-Fitr – The month of Ramadan is the most eagerly awaited month for Muslims. All good activities this month will get double the reward, MashaAllah. Apart from fasting, zakat fitrah is also one of the obligatory activities in every month of Ramadan. So what exactly is zakat fitrah? And who is entitled to get zakat fitrah? Here’s an explanation.
Definition of Zakat Fitrah
Zakat is personal property that is issued to be given to those who are entitled to receive it. Zakat is the 4th pillar of Islam.
Zakat fitrah is zakat that is obligatory on oneself for every individual, both male and female Muslims who have the ability according to the conditions set. Zakat fitrah is issued in the form of daily staple foods, such as rice and corn. Zakat fitrah is issued by each individual in the month of Ramadan ahead of Eid al-Fitr.
The definition of zakat fitrah can be interpreted as a form of concern for Muslims towards people who are less fortunate. For this reason, basically zakat fitrah is giving food to the poor. The law of zakat fitrah itself is mandatory for free people, both children and adults from among the Muslims.
The purpose of issuing zakat fitrah is as a cleanser for those who issue it, and fasting from useless practices during the month of Ramadan. Not only that, by issuing zakat fitrah as a means to help each other to less fortunate people, so that they also get proper food during Eid al-Fitr. So all people can feel happy because they can enjoy food like other people every Eid.
Zakat fitrah is issued no later than before people finish performing the Eid prayer. And if the time for giving zakat exceeds the limit, then what is given is not included in the category of zakat but ordinary charity.
Conditions for Issuing Zakat
Zakat issued by Muslims is given to people who are more deserving of receiving it according to the provisions. Not all assets are required to pay taxes. There are basic requirements for the issuance of zakat, namely:
- Muslim and independent
- Of course zakat is something that must be carried out for Muslims, especially during the month of Ramadan. In addition to being Muslim, people who issue zakat must be free, meaning they are not being oppressed or become slaves like in the Jahiliyya era.
- Meet two times, namely between the months of Ramadan and Shawwal even if only for a moment.
- Has more wealth than his daily needs for himself and people under dependents on the feast day and night. That is, for those who issue zakat must have enough wealth for themselves and their families or are not hungry and very distressed.
According to the National Amil Zakat Agency or BAZNAS, the conditions for the imposition of zakat on assets are:
- Assets are lawful goods and are obtained in a lawful manner as well. Assets issued purely from the way of work that is lawful. Not or not the result of cheating, gambling and others. Property must be clean.
- The property is fully owned by the owner. The assets that are owned do not belong to other people that are entrusted to him, nor are they borrowed.
- This property is a growing property. That is, the assets issued are not the only assets.
- The assets reach the nishab according to the type of property. Because in issuing zakat there are rules or its own measure. So for people who will issue zakat, the assets owned must match the type of wealth.
- The treasure passes through the haul. Property owned must be taken into account, not forced and not burdensome.
- The owner of the property has no short-term debt to pay off. That is, the assets to be issued are assets that are not the only assets owned in paying debts.
However, the obligatory zakat will fall if:
- People who died before sunset at the end of Ramadan.
- Children born after sunset at the end of Ramadan.
- People who have just embraced Islam after the sun sets at the end of Ramadan.
- Dependents of newly married wives after sunset at the end of Ramadan.
Zakat Issued Calculation
According to the National Amil Zakat Agency or BAZNAS and the Ministry of Religion, zakat comes from the form of the word “zaka” which means holy, good, blessing, growing and developing. The meaning of growth in the sense shows that issuing zakat is a cause for growth and also the development of assets for the implementation of zakat resulting in a large number of rewards. And the holy meaning shows that zakat is to purify the soul from ugliness, evil and purification from sins.
Zakat is a certain part of the assets that must be issued by every Muslim with conditions that have met the conditions set. People who are entitled to receive zakat are called mustahik, while people who issue zakat are called zakki. According to Minister of Religion Regulation No. 52 of 2014, Zakat is property that must be issued by a Muslim or a business entity owned by a Muslim to be given to those who are entitled to receive it in accordance with Islamic law.
According to the scholars, the amount of zakat issued is in accordance with the interpretation of the hadith, which is equal to one sha’ (1 sha’=4 mud, 1 mud=675 gr) or roughly equivalent to 3.1 liters or 2.5 kg of staple food (flour). , dates, wheat, aqith) or what is commonly consumed in the area concerned.
There is also a time for paying zakat fitrah. The following details the payment time:
- From the beginning to the end of the month of Ramadan
- It is obligatory to pay off when the sun has set at the end of the month of Ramadan
- The afdhal time is the dawn prayer on the last day of the month of Ramadan until before the Eid prayer
- Makruh perform Eid prayers before sunset
- Haraam time is the zakat that you do after sunset on Eid al-Fitr
Who is Eligible to Receive Zakat Fitrah?
There is wisdom in the law from zakat fitrah, namely:
- Zakat fitrah is a personal zakat, in which Allah gives long life for him so that he survives with His favors.
- Zakat al-Fitr is also a form of assistance to Muslims, both rich and poor, so that they can fully concentrate on worshiping Allah Ta’ala and rejoice with all of His blessings.
- His greatest wisdom is a sign of the gratitude of the fasting person to Allah for the pleasure of fasting.
In principle, every Muslim is obliged to pay zakat fitrah for himself, his family and other people who are dependents and other people who are dependents, both adults, small children, men and women. Zakat recipients are generally defined in 8 categories. The following groups or people are entitled to receive zakat.
The first person who is entitled to receive zakat is the fakir. Fakirs are people who have very little wealth. They have no income and have almost nothing, so they are unable to meet the basic needs of life.
Furthermore, people who are entitled to receive zakat are poor. In terms of wealth, the poor are above the poor. They are people who have wealth but also very little. So that they cannot or are able to meet their needs even though they have worked all the time.
Third, people who are entitled to receive zakat are amil. Amil are those or all parties who act, work, collect, store, guard, record and distribute zakat to people in need.
A convert is a term for a non-Muslim person who has hopes of converting to Islam or someone who has just converted to Islam. Converts are people who are entitled to receive zakat.
As explained in Surah At-Taubah Verse 60 it is stated that converts are among those who are entitled to receive zakat. People who have just converted to Islam or converts are also groups that are entitled to receive zakat. The goal is for people to become more firmly convinced of Islam as their religion, Allah as god and Muhammad
People who are also entitled to receive zakat are riqab. Riqab is a slave or slave who wants to free himself. Riqab has the right to receive zakat, if he is Mutabtab then it is to help pay what he has to pay to his employer and if he is not Mutab it is so that he can redeem himself from his employer so that he becomes an independent person.
Gharim in Arabic means people who have debts. Gharim are those who are in debt for the necessities of life in maintaining their soul and izzah. However, people who are in debt for immoral interests such as gambling and are in debt to start a business and then go bankrupt, their right to receive zakat will be void.
People who owe for personal gain, with the following conditions:
- Debt does not arise because of disobedience
- The debt is wrapped around the culprit
- The debtor is no longer able to pay off the debt
- The debt is due, or must be paid off when zakat is given to the debtor
- People who owe for social purposes, such as those who owe to reconcile between warring parties by bearing diyat fees (criminal fines) or the cost of damaged goods.
- People like this are entitled to receive zakat, even if they are rich people who can pay off their debts.
- People who are in debt because they guarantee other people’s debts, where the guarantor and the guaranteed are both in a state of financial difficulty.
- People who owe for the payment of diyat (fine) due to accidental murder, if their family (aqilah) really cannot afford to pay the fine, so does the state treasury.
7. Fi Sabilillah
The person who is entitled to receive zakat is fisabilillah. Fisabilillah are those or people who fight in the way of Allah in forms such as da’wah activities, rejecting slander, jihad and so on. For example, education developers, preaching, health, orphanages, Islamic madrasas and many more.
The zakat quota for this group is distributed to the mujahideen, volunteer preachers, as well as other parties who take part in managing jihad and da’wah activities, such as in the form of various kinds of war equipment and da’wah tools along with all the expenses needed by the mujahid and preachers.
There are criteria for receiving zakat fisabilillah, namely:
- Funding the military movement that struggles to raise the banner of Islam and counter attacks launched against Islamic countries.
- Helping various activities and businesses, both carried out by individuals and congregations that aim to apply Islamic law in various countries.
- Funding Islamic da’wah centers managed by sincere and honest Islamic leaders in various non-Muslim countries with the aim of spreading Islam in various legal ways in accordance with the demands of the times. For example, mosques built in non-Muslim countries that function as a basis for Islamic da’wah.
- Funding serious efforts to strengthen the position of Muslim minorities in countries controlled by non-Muslims who are facing plans to undermine their faith.
8. Ibn Sabil
Eighth for people who are entitled to receive zakat is ibn sabil. Ibn sabil are those who run out of expenses on the way in obedience to Allah. In addition, Ibn Sabil is also known as a traveler or people who are traveling long distances, including workers and students in overseas lands.
There are conditions for zakat in this group, namely:
- Is on a trip outside the country where he lives. If it is still in the environment of the country where he is in need, then he is considered as poor or poor.
- This trip does not conflict with Islamic law, so giving zakat does not become an aid to commit immorality.
- At that time he did not have the cost to return to his country, even in his country as a rich man. If he has debts that are not yet due, or to other people whose whereabouts are unknown, or to someone who is in financial difficulty, or to someone who has reneged on his debt, then all of that does not prevent him from being entitled to receive zakat.
The intention of Zakat Fitrah
In the payment of zakat fitrah can be represented by parents or siblings, this is what causes the intention to be different or depending on who the zakat is intended for. The following are various intentions or readings when going to do zakat fitrah:
Intentions of Zakat Fitrah for Yourself
نَوَيْتُ أَنْ أُخْرِجَ زَكاَةَ اْلفطر عَنْ نَفْسِيْ فَرْضًالِلهِ تَعَالَى
“Nawaitu an ukhrija zakatal-fitri ‘an nafsi fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for myself fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.”
The intention of Zakat Fitrah for all family members, including yourself
ﻧَﻮَﻳْﺖُ ﺃَﻥْ ﺃُﺧْﺮِﺝَ ﺯَﻛَﺎﺓَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﻋَنِّيْ ﻭَﻋَﻦْ ﺟَﻤ ْﻊِ ﻣَﺎْﺰَﻣُنِيْ ﻧَﻔَﻘَ said
“Nawaitu an ukhrija zakaatal-fitri anni wa an jami’il ma yalzamuni nafaqat uhum syar’an fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for myself and all people whose living is my fardhu’s responsibility because of Allah Ta’ala.”
Intentions of Zakat Fitrah for Wives
ﻧَﻮَﻳْﺖُ ﺃَﻥْ ﺃُﺧْﺮِﺝَ ﺯَﻛَﺎﺓَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِﻋَﻦْ ﺯَﻭْﺟَﺘِﻲْ ﻓَﺮْﺿ knob
“Nawaitu an ukhrija zakaatal-fithri ‘an zaujati fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for my wife fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.” The intention of Zakat Fitrah for Boys.”
Intentions of Zakat Fitrah for Girls
ﻧَﻮَﻳْﺖُ ﺃَﻥْ ﺃُﺧْﺮِﺝَ ﺯَﻛَﺎﺓَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِﻋَﻦْ ﺑِﻨْﺘِﻲْ … ﻓَﺮْﺿ Rent
“Nawaytu an ukhrija zakaata al-fitri ‘an bint (…..) fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for my daughter… (mention name), fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.”
Intentions of Zakat Fitrah for Boys
ﻧَﻮَﻳْﺖُ ﺃَﻥْ ﺃُﺧْﺮِﺝَ ﺯَﻛَﺎﺓَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﻋَﻦْ ﻭَﻟَﺪِﻱْ … ﻓَﺮْﺿًﺎ certainly ﺗَﻌَﺎﻟَﻰ
“Nawaytu an ukhrija zakaata al-fitri ‘an waladi (…..) fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for my son… (mention the name), fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.”
The intention of Zakat Fitrah for other people who are represented
ﻧَﻮَﻳْﺖُ ﺃَﻥْ ﺃُﺧْﺮِﺝَ ﺯَﻛَﺎﺓَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﻋَﻦْ (…) ﻓَﺮْﺿpair certainly ﺗَﻌَﺎﻟَﻰ
“Nawaitu an ukhrija zakaatal-fithri ‘an (……) fardhan lillahi ta’ala.”
Meaning: “I intend to issue zakat fitrah for … (mention the specific name), fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.”
The month of Ramadan does have its specialties, be it traditions, obligations and even other things. All Muslims are certainly looking forward to the arrival of the holy month of Ramadan and the rewards that accompany it.
If Sinaumed’s wants to understand more about zakat fitrah, you can get his book at www.sinaumedia.com . As #FriendsWithoutLimits, we always try to provide the best and most complete information!
Author: Yufi Cantika Sukma Divine