Riau Traditional House – Sinaumed’s, what do you know about the Riau area? The province on the island of Sumatra is known as the largest oil producer in Indonesia. Not only that, Riau also went viral internationally because the vast forests in the province were on fire. The fog soared high into the neighboring country.
On this occasion, we will explore more about Riau, specifically regarding Riau traditional houses. Like other traditional houses, the Riau traditional house is unique. What are the uniqueness of this Riau traditional house? Let’s look at Sinaumed’s in the explanation this time.
As one of the provinces in Indonesia, Riau is located in the middle of the east coast of Sumatra Island. This province also consists of an archipelago which is a large group of small islands. Among the famous ones are Bintan Island and Batam Island which are located south of Singapore and east of Sumatra.
With an area of 87,023.66 square km and a population of 6,493,603 people, Riau has a population density of 75 people per square kilometer. The capital city of Riau is in Pekanbaru as well as being the largest city in this province. The next largest city is Dumai.
So far, Riau is known as a province that has abundant natural resource wealth. It’s no joke, Riau is the largest oil-producing region in Indonesia with a production of 365 thousand barrels per day. Fantastic isn’t it? In fact, because of the abundance of petroleum products in Riau, it is said that oil in Riau is not only produced from underground, but also from above the ground.
Apart from petroleum, Riau also produces rubber, natural gas, fiber plantations, and palm oil. However, from time to time, large-scale deforestation occurs in Riau. Forest land was drastically reduced with the aim of opening new plantations for oil palm and paper production. This deforestation has resulted in severe haze and forest fires that have disrupted other areas and even neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore.
Variety of Riau Traditional Houses
The native population of Riau comes from the Riau Malay tribe. This tribe has a long history so that this tribe has experienced many cultural adjustments to various places, namely Hinduism, Islam, China, Portugal, the Netherlands and England. Therefore, if Riau’s traditional houses are thick with Malay nuances, Sinaumed’s shouldn’t be surprised.
Riau traditional houses can be identified by several general characteristics, namely that they generally face the river. Many traditional Riau communities use the river as a means of transportation. This is not surprising because many settlements in Riau are located along the Siak River.
Another feature is that the majority of Riau traditional houses are in the form of stilt houses, the bottom of which is supported by strong wood at the edges. We need to remember that Riau is an area that has very large forests. Especially before experiencing deforestation.
The extent of the forest is the habitat of various kinds of animals, ranging from tame to ferocious. To avoid attacks by wild animals, the Malay community designs their houses into stilt houses. But over time, the beasts have begun to decrease. The lower part of the house is mostly used for livestock pens.
Not only that, the stilt house also serves to protect the house from flooding. Residences that are near the coast and rivers are very at risk of being flooded. Thus, the reason for the design of a stilt house has many functions.
All right, Sinaumed’s, let’s just review this Riau traditional house.
1. Malay House with Cut Lime Roof
As the name suggests, this Rumah Melayu Limas Bambu has a roof in the shape of a three-dimensional pyramid. The word cut implies that the roof of this house is cut off at the ends of the roof. So, this pyramid-cut house is meant to show that the house has a roof like a pyramid but is cut off at the ends.
Among other Riau traditional houses, maybe the Limas Cut Malay House is one of the types of traditional houses that you most often encounter there. This house is indeed used as the main residence by the local residents.
The main concept of this traditional house is not much different from other Riau traditional houses. This house is like most Malay traditional houses in general, which is located at an altitude of 1.5 meters from the ground. With such a concept, Riau traditional houses can be said to be stilt houses.
Why is a stilt house built like that? This is because in ancient times many Riau residents lived on the coast. Houses on stilts like this can ensure that their house will not be hit or drowned if the sea is experiencing high tide.
This house is mainly made of wood and boards. On the front, provided several steps as the entrance to the main door. This house is dominated by yellow and red.
For anyone who wants to build this traditional house, they are welcome to determine their own size. Because there are no specific rules that discuss the standard size of this house. Generally, the size of this traditional house indicates the economic and social status of the user. The larger the size of the house, the more financially secure the owner is. This conclusion is based on the large number of boards that are attached to build the house.
Specifically, this traditional house is a traditional house originating from Batam Island. However, currently the pyramid house is generally used as a tourist destination. To preserve the culture in the form of this traditional house, the local government established a tourist area which contains the Limas Cut Malay house.
You will find many of these traditional houses in Kampung Teluk, Batu Besar Village, Nongsa District, Batam. The purpose of this tour is to show the existence of historical sites as well as education for Indonesian youth, especially youth from Riau.
Within the tourist area, you can enjoy a rural feel so that this place can be an alternative for a vacation. This place is also equipped with public facilities such as stalls and mushalla.
Judging from the history, this house is quite old because it was founded in 1959. Therefore, it is not surprising that this house was made a Malay cultural heritage. The house in this area was built by Haji Abdul Karim.
2. Twin Falls Selaso House
Selaso (Malay) in Indonesian means selasar. The Twin Falls Selaso House means a house that has two hallways whose floor is lower than the living room. Thus, the perimeter of the porch is lower.
The Twin Falls Selaso House is also commonly called the Falls Salaso Hall. This house is not used for the residence of ordinary citizens. Only traditional leaders or datuk are allowed to live in Balasi Salaso Fell. Apart from that, this house is also commonly used as a place for gatherings, traditional events, cooking together, deliberations, as well as a storage place for traditional instruments (including musical instruments). Therefore, it is not surprising that this house is also known as the Density Hall, Sarirung Hall, and Medical Center.
Inside there are several large rooms that can be used for resting, the pavilion, the cross-legged room, and the kitchen. It’s just that, this traditional house does not have rooms like a house in general. There are only barriers as separators.
This traditional house is quite unique. If you pay attention, on the roofs, pillars, stairs and attics there are carvings with typical Riau ornaments which make their beauty unquestionable. On the stairs, you will find carvings of waves or hanging bees which mean that people can live as usefully as bees.
On the wall of the Twin Falls Selaso house, you will find carvings of a flock of ducks or ducks walking hand in hand. This carving symbolizes the advice that humans as social beings should be able to live side by side and in harmony, compact, peaceful and together. Apart from these two types of carvings, there are several other types of carvings such as nails, ants with rings, kite wings, dragons, inscriptions of verses from the Koran, and shoots of bamboo shoots.
On the roof there is a decoration in the form of wood sticking out criss-crossing. This decorative wood is called Tunjuk Langit. The function of the wood is as a means of acknowledging God Almighty. On the decorative wood there are carvings that symbolize the embodiment of custom. Each type of carving has a specific meaning.
3. Kajang Folding Malay Shelter
The next Riau traditional house is the Fold Kajang Malay Residential. This traditional house seems to have become extinct because it is very rarely seen. Even if they still exist, usually the house is a local government building that was renovated so it looks more modern.
In the past, these traditional houses were mostly built in areas flowed by the Rokan River, the Siak Sri Indrapura area, and the left side of the Kampar river, the Pelalawan area, the downstream area and the mouth of the Indragiri river. In Malay, Fold Kajang can be interpreted as a winding road or river at a sharp angle.
A journal entitled Roof Architectural Elements in Riau Malay Traditional Houses , explains that the folding roof of the kajang has a steep roof shape. This design was made not only to add to the beauty and aesthetics of the indigo building, but also so that rainwater can flow down easily.
If the water can easily go down, then the roof will not easily collapse to withstand the heavy weight of the water. Not only that, the design does not allow stagnant water. Please note, stagnant water is a source of disease and mosquito nests.
This Fold Kajang Malay dwelling is decorated with ornaments in the form of carvings of selo bayuang or selembayung and banished horns, namely ornaments in the form of animals, flowers and plants. The meaning of this ornament is affection, magical elements, home light, safety, compassion, custom, and self-knowledge.
This house is constructed from natural materials. For the roof, nipa leaves and reeds were chosen. For the walls and floor of the house, they are generally made of woven bamboo so that the inside of the house feels cool because there is air that can go in and out through the small vents between the woven. To strengthen the webbing, some bamboo is tied with palm fiber and rattan.
To build the Kajang Folded Malay Shelter, we need three peg beams or lower tendrils (padongko) in a transverse position from left to right of the house. The function of this beam is to tie the poles in unity to the top row of the house. In the house there is also a large beam that crosses from left to right.
4. Lontik Roof Malay House
The next Riau traditional house is the Lontik Roof Malay House. This traditional house is also called Rumah Lancang or Rumah Pencalang because the roof of this house has a sharp tapered shape and the shape of the legs of the house is shaped like a boat or presumptuous. Meanwhile, the four sides of the Lontik Roof Malay House are tilted outwards.
As with other traditional Sumatran houses, the roof is designed like a buffalo horn. Many people think that the Lontik Roof Malay House is inspired by the Gadang House, which is a traditional Minangkabau house. When viewed from a geographical location, this assumption is not wrong considering that the regions of Riau and West Sumatra border each other.
This traditional house is a symbol that signifies the high respect of the people of Riau for God Almighty. The existence of an arch on the roof symbolizes that the beginning and end of human life will return to God. The number of steps leading to the house is five which symbolizes the five pillars of Islam. If there are stairs in the room, the number of steps is odd, namely 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11.
Not only symbolizing respect for God, this traditional house also symbolizes high affection for fellow human beings. This traditional house also carries the concept of a stilt house to avoid flooding and attacks by wild animals. This is because these houses are generally built near the river. In addition to avoiding attacks by wild animals, the lower part of the house can be used as a cattle pen.
5. Siak Halfway House
According to historical records, the Senapelan area (Pekanbaru) was the capital of the Siak Sri Indrapura Kingdom. Before Senapelan, Menpura was the capital of the Kingdom of Siak Sri Indrapura. The reason for choosing Senapelan as the capital is that this region is in a strategic location in trade traffic. Plus, the condition of the Siak River is very calm. Not to mention, at that time Senapel was a village that played an important role in crossing positions with the interior of Tapung, Mingakabau, and Kampar.
These conditions prompted Sultan Abdul Jalil Alamuddin Syah question to move the royal center from Menpura to Senapelan in 1775. It’s just that this house was only built in 1895. And this Siak Shelter House is the house that the Sultan of Siak and his entourage will visit for the first time. was in Senapelan.
If you want to visit the house in person, this house is 20 meters from the Siak River. More precisely, on Jalan Panglima Undan, to be precise under the Siak III Bridge in Kampung Bandar, Senapelan, Pekanbaru City, Riau.
Siak Halfway Houses are generally built with wood as the basic material. But for the part of the stairs which is on the east side of the building, it is made of special brick. When viewed from the ground plan, the building has a length from north to south of 17.52 meters and a width of 8.67 meters from west to east. When viewed from above, this house seems to be divided into three parts, namely two small rectangles and one small rectangle.
Sinaumed’s, that is the variety of Riau traditional houses that we need to know and preserve. If you want to know more about the various traditional houses in Indonesia, you can read related books by visiting sinaumedia.com so that you have #MoreWithMembaca information.
Author: Mutiani Eka Astutik