5 Machine Lubrication System Functions, Components, Types and How It Works

Function of the engine lubrication system – Every motorized vehicle that is used regularly will certainly slowly experience wear and tear on the engine and requires re-lubrication, one of which is by changing the engine oil regularly so that the vehicle remains comfortable and has a steady pull when used.

Vehicles certainly experience friction on the components of the engines that are driven every day. For this reason, in order to avoid engine damage and dryness of the engine components, the role of engine lubrication is very necessary for any type of vehicle.

So, therefore, for Sinaumed’s friends, to understand the role of the engine lubrication function on vehicles that Sinaumed’s friends usually use to stay comfortable driving and avoid unwanted vehicle problems, in this discussion we will present information regarding the function of the engine lubrication system on vehicles. which is important to know.

Further discussion of related information can be seen below!

What is Engine Lubrication System?

Lubricant is a chemical, usually a liquid, that is applied between two moving objects to reduce friction. This substance is part of petroleum distillate with a temperature of 105-135 degrees Celsius. Lubricant acts as a protective layer that separates the two contact surfaces. In general, lubricants consist of 90% base oil and 10% additives. One of the most important uses of lubricants is in motor oils used in internal combustion engines.

Commonly called mechanical lubricant or engine oil is a substance used to lubricate the engine. There are many types and types of motor oil. Depending on how you use the machine itself, you need the right oil to extend or maintain the life of your engine.

All oils are basically the same. In short, it is the lubricant that keeps your engine running smoothly and trouble free. It also acts as a heat insulator. The oil contains a fine film that minimizes metal-to-metal contact with engine components and prevents scratching and wear. For specific purposes, specific uses for specific functions, oil requires many additional functions. For example, diesel engines usually run at lower speeds, but run hotter than gasoline engines. Diesel engines also have more favorable conditions (opportunities) which can lead to oil oxidation, bearing metal deposits and corrosion.

The lubrication system is a system designed to lubricate machine parts.

This system is built by considering several features. The system works directly as a coolant for engine components, cleaning dirt that has accumulated on engine components to improve engine performance.

Lubrication is also provided to isolate the bore between the cylinder and piston. This is done to eliminate noise caused by moving mechanical parts. It also helps keep engine components wear-free, extending engine life and making the vehicle more comfortable to drive.

Types of Machine Lubrication Systems

In general, there are three types of engine lubrication systems.

1. Irrigation / Sprinkling System

The structure of the irrigation system is very simple. Since engine oil is distributed throughout the engine components through crankshaft movement, of course there is a spoon-like component that sprays oil throughout the engine.

This system has a spray scoop at the lower end of the piston rod. Therefore, when the engine rotates, the oil in the oil bath spreads to the cylinder walls and bearings. This type has a very simple structure, but it is difficult to lubricate parts with narrow gaps.

A splash lubrication system that uses the movement of moving parts to spray lubricating oil onto the parts that need lubrication. The crankshaft rotates while spraying lubricating oil to lubricate the cylinder walls.

This system is less effective for lubricating components that are closer to the crankcase. The spray system is only used on small machines such as motorcycle engines, water pump engines and lawn mowers.

Following are the results of this splash lubrication system:

  • Change the oil with a certain mileage.
  • Poor lubrication due to oil drips only reaching certain areas.

2. Pump System

In this system, direct pressure from the oil pump lubricates the crankshaft bearings, crankshaft and rocker arm shafts. As for the lubrication of the cylinder walls and gears, the timing is carried out by the oil injected from the nozzles. The oil drop that passes through the rocker arm and returns to the oil pan (cartridge pan) is used to lubricate the valve mechanism.

The pressure system works by pumping the lubricating oil sucked from the crankcase through the filter by the oil pump to the previously lubricated parts filtered by the oil filter, and the lubricated oil that has been lubricated is returned to the original section. it is returned. Crankcase.

This second system uses hydraulic pressure via a pump. The second system has proven to be superior in distributing oil to all parts of the engine because it has channels that are integrated with pumps to the engine parts. It is believed that several modern production machines use this pump system.

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Here are the results for the pressure lubrication system:

  • Even and regular lubrication.
  • Can be used with 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines.
  • oil change for a certain mileage.

3. Combination system

This system combines the two systems above. This is necessary because each of the above systems has its own advantages and disadvantages. This combination is expected to provide a more complete lubrication system and reduce the negative impact on the engine at high speed.

The combined lubrication system is a machine lubrication system that mixes lubricant (side/mix) with fuel (gasoline), where the lubricant and fuel are mixed directly in the fuel tank. This system is limited to 2 stroke scooter bikes.

The combination system consists of two units as shown above, and there is a shovel in the crankcase that injects engine oil, which works together with the oil pump to distribute the lubricating oil to the innermost part of the crankcase.

Following are the results of the mixed lubrication system:

  • The fuel tank is above/higher than the engine. B. The flow of fuel is caused by gravity.
  • The simplest oil lubrication system.
  • Wasteful use of oil and high levels of air pollution.
  • Used for small power two stroke engines.
  • Uses a special 2-stroke oil that is compatible with gasoline, containing 2% to 4% bio-oil.

Machine Lubrication System Functions

The purpose of lubrication in engines is to overcome the wear and tear that occurs between two metal surfaces that touch and rub against each other, as well as to cool and clean. This lubricant will work by forming a film (lubricating layer) between two metal surfaces that rub against each other, for example between the crankshaft, piston bearings and cylinder walls to prevent direct contacts between the parts. The function of lubricating oil is as follows:

1. For Lubrication

Engine oil lubricates the contact surfaces by forming a film that prevents direct contact between the metal surfaces and limits wear.

2. For Cooling

Combustion generates heat and engine parts become hot. This causes these parts to wear out quickly, and if the temperature is lowered, the engine will stall.

3. For Seals

Engine oil forms a layer between the piston and cylinder to prevent leakage of compressed air which would be squeezed around the piston and into the crankcase and cause a loss of power.

4. For Cleansing

Dirt will settle on the engine parts as metal particles due to friction between the metals touching each other, this increases friction and clogs the oil passages, and will wash away the dirt, preventing dirt from accumulating inside the engine.

5. To Absorb Machine Pressure

Engine oil absorbs and relieves pressure by acting on the lubricated parts and prevents the parts from becoming sharp when rubbed.

Engine Lubrication System Components

1. Oil Pump

The oil pump functions to suck oil from the oil sump and press or distribute it to moving engine parts. This component functions to suck and distribute oil in the engine. The performance of the oil pump components depends on the engine rotation based on the camshaft, crankshaft, or timing belt. The oil pump works by distributing pressurized oil throughout the engine channels.

Then the oil was finally discharged through the link channel which is at the end of the pump. This process aims to lubricate all other parts of the open engine. The existence of an oil pump makes all the engine components receive lubricant without pressure.

2. Oil Filter (Oil Filter)

The function of the oil filter is to filter out the impurities that are still in the oil before the oil lubricates the engine parts.

Another component used in the lubrication system is the oil filter. This component acts as an oil filter from impurities so that the oil does not get dirty quickly. If the oil processed in this system is contaminated with dirt, then the lubrication will not function optimally.

Lubricants that work on a vehicle should not contain any impurities. Particles and dirt contained in the oil can cause engine gaps that are impermeable to be scratched.

3. Strainers

This component serves to improve the work of the oil filter. Strainers or filters can filter dirt up to one millimeter in diameter. The oil pump component is located between the oil pump hole and the oil pump, which serves as a lubricant suction hole to the oil pump.

4. Pressure Valve

Pressure valve or pressure valve is a lubrication component whose job is to regulate the pressure of the lubricant. This setting is mainly done when the engine is working with high rotation.

When the engine rotates high, the volume of oil that moves from the oil pump increases. While the oil channel has a capacity limit. Therefore, regulation of the lubricating pressure is required so that the oil pressure remains stable.

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Working from this one component has the final output to restore oil in the charter. This process takes place when the pressure of the lubricant or oil is rising.

5. Oil Switches

The oil switch is an oil pressure sensor which functions to determine the work output of the oil pump. This component is responsible for telling you about relative or not the oil pump pressure to lubricate the engine.

You will be able to know this when you turn your connection key in the on position. Look in the dashboard if your ride oil indicator light is on. If this light is on, it means the switch component is functioning properly.

But otherwise, when the engine is turned on the oil indicator light must be off. If the bio-oil indicator light is on when the engine is started, check your engine oil. There may be something problematic in the lubrication of your ride.

6. Oil galleries

Oil gallery is a lubrication channel that functions as a path for oil or lubricant in the machine. This component is a hole in the engine block that will be lubricated. This hole will deliver lubricant in devices that are required to receive lubrication.

7. Oil jets

Oil jet is a lubrication component that is under the engine cylinder. This component is responsible for spraying oil or lubricant into the drive rod.

8.PCV valve

This one component is no less important. Components Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve or abbreviated PCV valve is a part based on a series of engine ducts. This component is in the form of an air window channel that is still in the engine crankcase.

The PCV valve is useful for removing polluted gas or air. In the engine lubrication series, the PCV valve functions to remove residual combustion gases from the engine. In the end, this component can maintain pressure stability in the engine.

How Does the Lubrication System Work?

The operation of a vehicle’s engine lubrication system can be said to be quite simple but also complex. This system will start working when the vehicle engine is turned on. Whereas in normal conditions, namely the engine has not been started, lubricant or oil is deposited in the crankcase or oil pan.

At this point, the oil pump has been supplied with lubricant by the engine crankshaft. The oil pump usually uses a rotary pump.

Then when starting the engine, the crankshaft starts the lubrication system by rotating the oil pump. This process causes suction on the oil pump in the intake manifold. The lubricant will enter the oil pump through the inlet valve and the lubricant will be pumped on the other side which is removed.

Lubricating oil or pressurized oil is flowed through the oil line to the oil filter. Inside this filter element, the lubricant is filtered to remove various deposits, dirt, and particles.

Lubricant or oil then passes through the oil supply unit and is directed to the oil injector and the top of the machine. The oil on the surface of the automatic machine will do its job of lubricating the trigger and camshaft. The oil then returns to the crankcase or crankcase through the oil lines.

Instead, oil is expelled from the oil jets under the cylinder block. This oil or lubricant is responsible for lubricating the connecting rod and piston parts. All lubricant rotation is supported by a weight balancer.

The mass balance is the part of the crankshaft that is shaped like a shovel. This section is in charge of tearing the oil in the crankcase or oil bath when the crankshaft rotates. The goal is to distribute the oil throughout the engine.


That’s all for a brief discussion of what is the engine lubrication system on a vehicle. Not only knowing what an engine lubrication system is, but also discussing the types, functions, benefits, and the right way of working so that the machine is maintained.

Knowing what an engine lubrication system is for vehicle users is very useful to know how the lubrication system works on their vehicles so that they always pay attention to engine performance whether it has experienced wear and tear to carry out regular oil changes.

Thus a review of the function of the engine lubrication system. For Sinaumed’s who want to understand about lubrication systems and other knowledge related to the automotive world, you can visit sinaumedia.com to get related books.

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Author: Pandu Akram

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