Fauna Ornamental Patterns – As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has different decorative styles and the uniqueness of each region. This diversity is influenced by the natural environment, such as variations in plants (flora) and animals (fauna). So, this time we will find out what kind of ornamental fauna there are in Indonesia.
Before that, do you know what decoration is? Generally, decoration is known as ornament. Ornament comes from the Greek word ” ornare ” which means decoration or decoration. This word was absorbed into English to become ” ornament “. Can Sinaumed’s explain the types of ornaments that generally exist in various countries?
Decoration is a work of art that aims to add beauty to objects both for decoration and functional objects. As with other arts, decoration is a form of art that is inherent in the identity of the Indonesian nation. Therefore, you can find decorations or ornaments in traditional houses, living rooms, modern buildings, and textile products.
Archipelago decorative motifs are usually accompanied by a load of traditional values and characters from each region. Although each region has different motifs, there are similarities in the basic form of decorative motifs, arrangement patterns, coloring, and their symbolic value. Several types of motifs that are often used are decorative flora (plants), fauna (animals), figurative (humans), and geometric shapes.
Usually, decoration is a repetitive pattern made in a work of art. Ornamental art is made with the aim of filling the surface void of a work. The existence of this art component also serves to beautify the work of art. The variety of decorations in a work can increase its selling value, as quoted from Cultural Arts for Class VII Middle Schools/MTs by Sri Sudaryati and Boiman.
Definition of Decorative Variety of Fauna
Fauna decoration is a decoration that uses the form of fauna (animals) as the object of the decorative motif. Most of the depiction of fauna in ornaments is the result of composition or stylization, rarely in the form of natural animals, but the results of these compositions are still easy to recognize the shape and type of animal composed, in visualization animal forms are sometimes only taken in certain parts (not completely) and combined with motifs other.
In his visualization, animal forms are often only taken in certain parts (not completely), some are combined with other motifs. Generally, the types of animals that are used as objects of composition are birds, lions, snakes, monkeys, dragons and so on.
The animal shown in the picture is a form of decoration in general which has undergone a change in shape or style. The various decorative motifs of fauna have undergone a lot of deformation but have not left their original shape. Usually the decorative fauna is combined with floral motifs in various forms.
Decorative animal motifs like this are often found in batik works, carvings, embroidery, plaits, embroidery, weaving, and embroidered fabrics. Various decorative forms of fauna are often used as a means to introduce local wisdom from a certain area in Indonesia, such as birds of paradise in Papua, Komodo dragons in East Nusa Tenggara, and elephants in Lampung.
Purpose of Decorative Variety of Fauna
In fact, the purpose of making fauna ornaments is not much different from flora decorations. Together to fill in the blanks in the field of works of art and also make a work even more interesting. Of course, the purpose of this manufacture is for commercial purposes, increasing the selling price.
However, behind the objectives mentioned earlier, there are several other purposes, namely because of the magical element. Some areas often privilege certain animals because they are considered to have magical elements. As a concrete manifestation of this privilege, they usually express it in the form of works of art. In addition, another purpose of making this decoration as a regional characteristic. For example, in Papua, it is famous for its bird of paradise, some of its works of art use this bird as an icon.
Drawing Techniques for Decorative Flora
Because each region has its own characteristics, to draw decorative fauna, the first step you should take is to determine which area you will make the target for drawing ornaments.
Following are the steps and techniques for drawing decorative fauna that you can do according to the Class VII Middle School Cultural Arts Module compiled by Kirno Widarso (2020), namely:
1. Prepare Tools and Materials in Advance
Before starting, it would be nice if all the tools that will be used are available near you. This is intended to facilitate the processing process. The tools that can be used are paper, pencils, erasers, colored pencils and others. Selection of tools and materials of course need to be adjusted to the selection of media.
2. Determining the Motive to be Created
Before starting, we should already have an approach to what we want to make. Whether fish, elephants, lions or other animals. If you are still a beginner, you should choose an animal that is easy to make.
3. Make a Motive Sketch
After determining the motive, the next step is to start sketching. Sketching can be done by deformation, stylization or a combination of the two.
4. Arranging Motifs According to the Specified Pattern
Begin to arrange the motif according to the previously determined pattern. For example symmetrical patterns, irregular or other patterns. The use of patterns will facilitate the work being done.
5. Coloring and Adding Fills
The next step is to color the image that has been created. After that, we can beautify the image by adding a fill. Filling can be done in the form of thin lines or dots.
Examples of Easy-to-Draw Fauna Ornamental Patterns
The following are examples of decorative images that are often found and are easy to draw or make:
1. Decorative Variety of Butterfly Fauna
This form of butterfly image is generally shown with wings spread from above and is usually also found in the cement and fried corn motifs. The butterfly motif is the most common motif we encounter. Apart from being easy to make, this motif also gives a beautiful impression. Because, butterflies are always identified with beauty.
2. Decorative Variety of Bird Fauna
There are three kinds of bird ornaments that are often used in decoration. Examples are peacocks, phoenixes, the latter is a strange bird or an imaginary bird. Bird ornaments are also used as filler ornaments in addition to the main ornaments
3. Decorative Variety of Dragon Fauna
The dragon is an imaginary mythological creature in the form of a large snake and has extraordinary and powerful powers. Most of the dragon ornaments depicted are in the form of a giant head with a crown, sometimes with wings, and not infrequently also with wings and legs.
4. Decorative Variety of Four-Legged Animals
The four-legged animals here that are often used as images are oxen, deer, elephants, lions or tigers, which are depicted in a unique way, for example, elephants with wings or having a flowering tail.
5. Garuda Ornamental Variety
Apart from being a characteristic of Indonesia, the Garuda bird seems to have an important position in Javanese society. This is because of the story of a god who rides an eagle. For this reason, the Garuda bird is identified as a symbol of virility because it is ridden by a sun god. The reason for this motif being used is that it contains history, it turns out because the way it is made is easy and does not have many variations. This motif only consists of the tail, wings and body of the eagle.
6. Ornamental Dragon Asoq
As previously explained, each region has its own animal icon. One of them is the asoq dragon which is the motif of the Dayak Bahau tribe of Kalimantan. This type of motif is a combination of dragon and dog shapes. On the head, it looks more like a dragon while the band looks like a dog.
In general, this motif is displayed on the doors of their homes. Because, the Asoq dragon is believed to be able to ward off misfortune such as crime and other bad things. Meanwhile, the decoration is believed to be a savior and guide to the natural path after death.
The dragon asoq motif in the artwork looks like it is swimming. This is a form of respect for the Dayak Bahau tribe towards the river. The river that has given life to the Dayak Bahau tribe.
7. Coral Ornamental Variety
Coralliness is one of the results of a variety of decorations that mimic the shape of animals. The basic form is in the form of imaginary fauna, even tends to be abstract. Examples of coral fauna are goak coral, sae coral, and asti coral.
Coral is the result of an imitation of a crow’s head. Meanwhile, coral asti is an imitation of an elephant. In general, the shape of the essay mimics one type of fauna from the head, but fauna corals are also usually combined with flora corals.
8. Dragonfly Ornamental Variety
In addition to the use of butterfly motifs, there are also those who use dragonfly motifs. However, this motif is often juxtaposed with plant motifs. This aims to further beautify the work of art.
9. Ornamental Fish Variety
We also often encounter fish motifs in various works of art, especially in batik cloth. Several times, we must have seen batik motifs on school uniforms, if we don’t use plants, we will definitely use fish. Apart from having a simple motif, this type of motif also gives the impression of peace because fish is synonymous with water.
One of the fish motifs that is often used is “three fish with one head” or trimina. This motif is a decoration in the form of a picture of three fish intersecting on the head, so that it appears to have a single head.
This decoration can be found in many places in the world, such as Egypt, France to Japan. In Indonesia, the application of this decoration is mostly found in Javanese coastal texts and is closely related to the Syattariyah Order. Some sources consider the three fish with one head a variation of the trikueta and represents the holy trinity.
The three fish one head symbol is a symbol that is quite common in various parts of the world. This ancient decoration is said to be seen on the walls of a temple in Bodh Gaya, India where it is believed the Buddha received enlightenment. This motif also appears on gilded coffins from the Huan Dynasty in China. In addition, this symbol is also mentioned as appearing on ancient Egyptian pottery.
The earliest traceable examples of the use of the three fish and one head symbol on the island of Java are two manuscripts in the collection of Colonel Colin Mackenzie who worked during the British colonial period in Java from 1811 to 1813. Both of these manuscripts contain the Syattariyah genealogy, one of which dates back to 1790, comes from the Mataraman area in Batavia, today’s Jakarta.
In Indonesia, the decoration of three fish with one head can be found in ancient texts, but can also be found in batik. One of the batiks that has this decoration in its design is the Ceplok Kasatriyan batik. The decoration of three single-headed fish is stylized and placed in a flower-shaped field. The appearance of this symbol indicates the influence of Islamic Sufism in batik making.
10. Lizard Ornamental Variety
We will find this type of motif in one of the regions in Indonesia, namely East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. Lizards are one of the endemic animals on the island. Therefore, there are many works of art that use lizards as a motif for making art.
Other decorative motifs that are often found in this area are the Rukun Kupang, Teguh Bersatu, A Pair of Horses, Kupang Horses, and so on. These batik motifs are generally developed from geometric motifs from Kupang woven fabrics. The Rukun Kupang motif depicts togetherness and mutual cooperation that unites the upper and lower classes of society who respect each other, get along well, work together, are interrelated, support each other, help each other, and contribute to each other in a social system.
The Teguh Bersatu motif symbolizes the strength of the community because of a sense of unity in customs and culture, but remains open to good newness and respect and tolerance for different customs and cultures. The pair of horses motif depicts mutual love to work together with all their might to build a happy household, in a harmonious and united society, mutual compassion and care between husband and wife, because a harmonious household is the initial foundation of solidarity and unity of the community.
The Kupang Horse motif symbolizes the togetherness of the Kupang people in the nuances of harmony and kinship to preserve a proud culture by utilizing it for the prosperity of society and the glory of the region, nation and state.
Thus, some explanations about the decorative fauna. Hopefully it can add insight to all readers. Don’t forget to share with other friends to make it even more useful.
In essence, fauna ornaments are decorations whose objects use animals. There are many examples of this type of decoration such as elephants, fish, butterflies and so on. For the drawing technique, we need to pay attention to some provisions. One of them is the application of sketches.
Decorative fauna is a decorative variety that is closely related to life. This is because we often encounter objects that are used in everyday life. Making this type of decoration can provide several advantages such as bringing in money.
In addition, usually the animal that is drawn is one of the animals that is used as an icon in that area so that each region has its own characteristics of various decorative fauna objects. An example is the islands of East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara which are synonymous with Komodo dragons or the Papua region which is synonymous with birds of paradise. Interested, to start wrestle it? Therefore, start drawing animals that are around us.