General and Specific Characteristics of ASEAN Countries

Characteristics of ASEAN countriesThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN is a geopolitical and economic organization of countries in the Southeast Asian region which was established in Bangkok, Thailand on August 8, 1967. The aim of establishing ASEAN is to increase social and economic growth, development culture and create stability and peace among member countries.

ASEAN members consist of 10 countries. Each member country has its own characteristics. The characteristics of these ASEAN countries serve as a differentiator between one country and another. The characteristics of these ASEAN countries include the shape of the country, capital city, language, population, head of state and government to the area of ​​the ASEAN member countries.

So what are the characteristics of these 10 ASEAN member countries? Check out the explanation further in this article, OK!

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Perbara) is a geopolitical and economic organization of countries in the Southeast Asian region.

The ASEAN organization was established on August 8, 1967 in Thailand, Bangkok in accordance with the Civil Declaration by Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. ASEAN was established to achieve a goal, which is to increase economic growth, social progress, cultural development of member countries, promote regional peace and stability and increase opportunities to discuss differences among member countries in a peaceful way.

In 2010, according to nominal combined ASEAN GDP has grown to approximately 1.8 trillion dollars. If ASEAN were a single entity, then ASEAN would be the ninth largest economy along with the United States, China, Japan, Germany, France, Brazil, Britain and Italy.

ASEAN was founded by five countries namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines through the Bangkok Declaration. The following is the contents of the Bangkok Declaration.

  • Accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the Southeast Asia region.
  • Promote regional peace and stability.
  • Increase cooperation and mutual assistance for the common good in the social, economic, technical, administrative and scientific fields.
  • Maintain close cooperation, within existing regional as well as international organizations.
  • Increasing cooperation with the aim of advancing education, training as well as research in the Southeast Asian region.

Brunei Darussalam is the first member of ASEAN outside of the five initiating countries. Brunei Darussalam joined as a member country of ASEAN on January 7, 1984, which is exactly a week after commemorating the country’s independence day.

Eleven years later, ASEAN again accepted its seventh member on July 28, 1995. Then, two years later Laos and Myanmar also followed and joined ASEAN as members on July 23, 1997.

Although Cambodia plans to join as a member of ASEAN with Myanmar and Laos, the plan has to be postponed due to political problems occurring within Cambodia.

However, one year later, Cambodia finally joined ASEAN as a member on December 16, 1998. After all the countries in the Southeast Asian region had joined ASEAN, Timor Leste finally decided to join as a member of ASEAN, even though its membership had not been fulfilled.

That is the brief history of the founding of ASEAN and how other countries in Southeast Asia decided to join this organization.

Characteristics of ASEAN Countries in General

As previously explained, ASEAN member countries have their own characteristics. This characteristic serves as a differentiator from one member country to another. The characteristics of ASEAN countries include several things, including the form of the state, head of state, head of government, capital city, language, population and area.

Before discussing the characteristics of ASEAN countries one by one, here are the general characteristics of ASEAN countries.

1. Geographical conditions of ASEAN countries

The geographical location of countries in the Southeast Asian region or members of the ASEAN organization is in the southeast of the Asian continent. If you pay attention to the world map, Southeast Asia itself is located between the Australian Continent and the mainland of the Asian Continent.

Meanwhile, according to the ocean side, the position of Southeast Asia is right in the middle between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. When viewed according to its astronomical position, Southeast Asia is at 29.1° North Latitude – 11° South Latitude and 92° East Longitude – 141° East Longitude.

All countries that are passed by the equator must have a tropical climate, so that it becomes an area that has lots of tropical forests and beautiful nature accompanied by a variety of flora and fauna. The area of ​​Southeast Asia itself reaches around 2,257,000 km².

2. Climate of ASEAN member countries

As an area that has a tropical climate, in general, the Southeast Asian region only has two seasons, namely the dry season and the rainy season.

See also  difference between whiskey and bourbon

According to the emodul.kemdikbud page , this is because the equator receives pressure from monsoons that originate from deserts in Australia and trade winds that originate from the sub-tropics.

Rainfall in this area is also influenced by the geographical conditions of each country, so that each region can have a different rainy season. For example, like Indonesia, the rainy season usually comes from October to April, while in Thailand the rainy season usually comes from October to January.

In contrast to the Philippines, which is the entire territory, rain can occur throughout the year, while the northern part of Myanmar has a sub-tropical climate.

Specific Characteristics of ASEAN Countries

After knowing the general characteristics of ASEAN countries, Sinaumed’s also needs to know the characteristics that serve as differentiators from one ASEAN country to another. Here’s an explanation.

1. Thai

Thailand is a country located in Southeast Asia. Thailand is a neighboring country to Indonesia, because it is still in one regional area. Thailand is a founding country and member of ASEAN which has the following characteristics.

Official name: Muang Thai or Prathet Thai
Capital: Bangkok
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Head of state: King Bhumibool Adulyadej
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Primary languages: Thai (official), Chinese, English, Malay
Population: 65.1 million soul according to 2015 data
Currency: Thai Bath
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and animism
National anthem: Pleng Chard Thai

In addition to the above characteristics, Thailand also has other secondary characteristics. Here’s an explanation.

a) Economy

Economic activity in Thailand is in the agricultural sector, especially rice and rubber. In addition, Thailand also produces tobacco, heads, silk, cotton and various types of fruits that help the economy.

Thailand is also developing into the industrial sector. Currently, Thailand has produced several industrial products including paper, cement and sugar.

In addition, there are also livestock and mining sectors. It is noted, that Thailand provides a sizeable contribution to the country’s foreign exchange.

b) Natural Resources

Thailand is one of the biggest tin producers in the world. Petroleum and tungsten are natural resources produced by this country.

Thailand’s main natural resources in economic activity are corn, rice, soybean trees, copra, tobacco and rubber.

2. Philippines

The Philippines is an archipelagic country like Indonesia. The Philippines has approximately 7,641 islands and has a length of area from north to south of about 1,851 km with a width from west to east reaching around 1,062 km. Astronomically, the Philippines is between 5°N – 20°N and between 120°E – 127°E. With the following characteristics.

Official name: República de Philippines
Capital: Manila
Government: Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: President
Primary languages: Filipino or Tagalog, English (official), Cebuano, Ilocano and local dialects.
Population: 103 million in 2015
Currency: Peso
Religion: Roman Catholicism (90%), Islam, Buddhism, animism
National anthem: Lupang Hinirang

In addition to the above characteristics, the Philippines also has other secondary characteristics. Here’s an explanation.

a) Economy

The Philippines relies on the agricultural sector, but currently the Philippines is also developing economic activities in the industrial sector. The main agricultural products are rice, corn, sugarcane, coconut, pineapple, mango, eggs, fish, meat, bananas.

b) Natural Resources

There are several natural resources in the Philippines, including nickel, wood, petroleum, silver, gold, cobalt, bronze and others. According to research, the Philippines has very good quality rice varieties.

3. Indonesian

Indonesia is an archipelagic country located in the Southeast Asian region which is crossed by the equator and is between the continents of Asia and Oceania, so that Indonesia is known as a transcontinental country.

Indonesia is the 14th largest country as well as being the largest archipelagic country in the world. Apart from being wide, Indonesia has other characteristics as follows.

Official name: Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)
Capital: Jakarta
Government: Presidential Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: President
Main language: Indonesian
Population: 255.7 million people in 2015
Currency: Rupiah
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christian, Hindu, Catholic, Confucian
National anthem: Indonesia Raya

In addition to the above characteristics, Indonesia also has other secondary characteristics. Here’s an explanation.

a) Economy

According to the International Monetary Fund or IMF, Indonesia has grown by 4% in 2013. This growth can be achieved because Indonesia is a major exporter of oil and gas or oil and gas. In addition, Indonesia also has abundant natural resources.

b) Natural Resources

Indonesia is known as a country that has natural resources in the form of raw materials such as rattan, wood, textiles, rubber, fisheries and various kinds of agricultural products.

Apart from that, Indonesia also has coal, gold ore, petroleum, and other raw material natural resources.

See also  difference between prose and poetry

4. Malaysian

Malaysia is known as the neighbor country. Malaysia is a neighboring country to Indonesia and still has a thick Malay family. Malaysia has a fairly well-known icon, namely the tall twin towers. Like other ASEAN member countries, Malaysia also has the following characteristics.

Official name: Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
Head of state: Raja Tuan Agung Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzan Shah
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Main languages: Malay, Tamil, English, Chinese
Population: 32,801 million people as of 2015
Currency: Ringgit
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Taoism
National anthem: My country

In addition to the above characteristics, Malaysia also has other secondary characteristics. Here’s an explanation.

a) Economy

Economic activity in Malaysia is carried out with plantation and agricultural products. Malaysia’s agricultural products are able to meet basic needs, such as vegetables and rice. As for plantations, Malaysia produces palm oil.

a) Natural Resources

The main natural resource owned by Malaysia is paddy or rice. In addition, Malaysia also has natural resources from mining such as silver, gold, coal and copper.

5. Singapore

Singapore is one of the developed countries in the Southeast Asia region. Even though the territory of this country is small, the facilities and technology owned by Singapore are of international standard. Singapore has the following characteristics.

Official name: His–chia–p’o Kung (Mandarin): Republic of Singapore (Malay), Singapore Kudiyarasu (Tamil), Republic of Singapore (English).
Capital: Singapore
Government: Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Primary languages: Malay, Tamil, English, Chinese
Population: 5.5 million as of 2015
Currency: Singapore Dollar
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christian, Hindu, Taoist, Confucian
National anthem: Majulah Singapore

Apart from the above characteristics, Singapore also has other secondary characteristics. Here’s an explanation.

a) Economy

Singapore is famous for its trade transit routes between countries, the products that are distributed are also various. Because of this, Singapore is a fairly advanced country in the field of technology and information.

b) Natural Resources

SDA owned by Singapore is not too much, because of this shortage of natural resources, Singapore developed the trade and tourism sector.

6. Brunei Darussalam

Brunei is a sovereign country in Southeast Asia which has an area of ​​5,765 km², currently it is recorded that Brunei has the second highest human development index in Southeast Asia, after Singapore. Brunei has the following characteristics.

Official name: Brunei Darussalam
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Government: Absolute Monarchy
Head of state: Sultan
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Main languages: Malay, English, Mandarin
Population: 0.4 million people as of 2015
Currency: Brunei dollar
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism
National anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan

7. Vietnamese

Vietnam is on the Indochina peninsula and has cultural influences from China and India. This country is the geographic form of Elongated according to its morphology. Vietnam has the following characteristics.

Official name: Cong Hoa Xa Hol Chu Viet Nam or Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Capital: Hanoi
Government: Socialist Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Main language: Vietnamese
Population: 91.7 million people as of 2015
Currency : Dong
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Christianity
National anthem: Tien Quan Ca

8. Laos

Laos is a country covered by dense forests and many mountains, one of the highest mountains has an altitude of 2,817 meters above sea level. Laos has the following characteristics.

Official name: Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Capital: Vientiane
Government: Socialist Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Main languages: Lao, French, English
Population: 6.9 million as of 2015
Currency:
Religious Kip : Buddhism, animism
National anthem: Pheng Kat Lao

9. Cambodia

Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with a tropical monsoon climate with two seasons, rainy and dry. Cambodia has the following characteristics.

Official name: People’s Republic of Kampuchea
Capital: Phnom Penh
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
Head of state: King
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Primary languages: Khmer, French, English
Population: 6.9 million as of 2015
Currency: Rie
Religion : Buddha

10. Burmese

Myanmar has a fairly varied landscape ranging from lowlands to mountains. Myanmar was the last country to join ASEAN. Following are the characteristics of the country of Myanmar.

Official name: Union Socialist Republic of Myanmar
Capital: Yangon
Government: Republic
Head of state: President
Head of government: Prime Minister (PM)
Primary language: Myanmar
Population: 52.1 million as of 2015
Currency: Kyat
Religion: Buddhist, Hindu, Islam and Christianity

That is a review of the characteristics of ASEAN countries , starting from the founding countries and the last countries that joined.