List of ASEAN Countries – Countries in the world are spread across six continents, namely Asia, Africa, South America, North America, Europe and Australia. The Asian continent itself is divided into 5 regions, namely East Asia, West Asia (Middle East), Central Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Each region has an organization that oversees the countries in it, including Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian region has an organization called ASEAN. What is ASEAN? The following is an explanation of ASEAN and a list of ASEAN countries that have joined to date.
What is ASEAN?
ASEAN is an abbreviation of the Association of Southern Asian Nations or can be translated as an association of Southeast Asian nations. Founded on August 8, 1967 in the city of Bangkok, Thailand, ASEAN has become the umbrella for Southeast Asian countries to build progress. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand are the founding fathers or founders of ASEAN. At the time of its establishment, the five countries sent their respective representatives.
Indonesia was represented by Adam Malik, Malaysia was represented by Tun Abdul Razak, the Philippines was represented by Narcisco Ramos, S. Rajaratnam as the envoy from Singapore, and Thailand by Thanat Khoman. The five signed an agreement called the ASEAN Declaration. In the declaration, the contents agreed to establish an association of Southeast Asian countries to work hand-in-hand to achieve mutual prosperity and progress.
List of ASEAN Countries
Until now, there are 10 countries listed in the list of ASEAN countries. What are the profiles and reviews of each country like. Check out the discussion below.
Being a country with the largest area in Southeast Asia, makes Indonesia the most populous country in the list of ASEAN countries. Indonesia has an area of approximately 1,919,400 km2 for land and around 3,273,810 km2 for sea area.
The total population of Indonesia based on the latest population administration data in June 2021 was recorded at 272,229,372 people, of which 137,521,557 people were male and 134,707,815 for women. In addition, Indonesia has earned the nickname as an archipelagic country because the islands that are spread across the archipelago total approximately 16,056.
The islands in Indonesia which are listed as major islands include Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. The center of population activity concentration is on the island of Java with the state capital being in the city of Jakarta.
The state of nature in Indonesia consists of oceans, rivers and lakes. This holds the potential for vast natural wealth, especially the vast sea with a diversity of fauna and flora species that are no less numerous throughout the region.
Indonesia achieved its independence on August 17, 1945. Previously, Indonesia had experienced colonization by western nations such as the Dutch, British, Spanish and Portuguese, and had been colonized by fellow Asian countries, namely Japan.
Indonesia regulates the Republican government system with a presidential system of government, which means that Indonesia is led by a president as head of state as well as head of government. The president in Indonesia is directly elected by the people with an electoral system every five years. Currently, there have been 7 presidential changes in Indonesia.
In carrying out his state activities, the Indonesian president is assisted by ministers who are responsible for managing various sectors supporting the country’s prosperity. Economic transactions carried out by the people of Indonesia use the rupiah as a medium of exchange.
Indonesia has a national anthem entitled Indonesia Raya and the unified language used is Indonesian. Having abundant natural resources makes the people of Indonesia rely on the agrarian sector as their livelihood.
The agrarian sectors that are relied upon are rubber, palm oil, timber, coffee, tea, spices, and so on. Joined since August 8, 1967 as a member of ASEAN, making Indonesia one of those on the list of Asian countries that have great influence.
The country included in the second list of ASEAN countries is Malaysia. Being a country that is often referred to as the Neighboring Country, Malaysia has many similarities because it is so close to Indonesia. Malaysia has an area of approximately 329,987 km2.
Geographically, Malaysia is divided into two, namely West Malaysia and East Malaysia. West Malaysia is located in the Malacca Peninsula region which consists of several states such as Selangor, Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perak, Pahang, Perlis, Penang, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Terengganu.
Meanwhile, East Malaysia only consists of two states, namely Sabah and Sarawak. Specifically for East Malaysia, this region is part of the Indonesian island of Borneo. Because of this, in several places the boundaries of the two countries are only separated by stakes as a territorial mark for both Indonesia and Malaysia.
Malaysia’s capital city is Kuala Lumpur. As explained above that Malaysia consists of several good countries, therefore the Malaysian government is in the form of a Monarchy or Kingdom, more precisely a Federated Monarchy not an Absolute Monarchy.
The king is the head of state with the title Yang Tuan Agung. Because it adheres to a federated monarchy system of government, the king here is chosen from nine states that lead in their respective territories. The king of each of these regions will hold a king election every five years.
Elections are made in a meeting known as the Assembly of Kings. The head of government in Malaysia is held by the Prime Minister who is assisted by the ministers in office. Malaysia is a British Commonwealth Country, thus making Malaysia recognize Queen Elizabeth as Chair of the Commonwealth.
The independence of the state of Malaysia was obtained on August 31, 1957. The Malaysian National Anthem is entitled Negaraku and the national languages used are Malay, English and Mandarin. Malaysian society uses Ringgit as a medium of exchange in the economy.
The sectors that Malaysia relies on are plantations, agriculture, industry and mining. Particularly in the mining sector, Malaysia is currently the largest tin ore producing country in the world. Just like Indonesia, Malaysia was included in the list of ASEAN countries which joined on August 8, 1967.
The third in the list of ASEAN countries is the Philippines. The area of the Philippines is approximately 300,000 km2. The Philippines has earned the nickname of an archipelagic country like Indonesia because it has many islands. More or less, there are 7,641 islands that exist until now.
Some of the major islands in the Philippines are Tidore Island, Mindanao Island, Luzon Island, Cebu Island, and Palawan Island. Traversed by the Pacific fold, the Philippines has many mountains, some of which are active. The highest mountain in the Philippines is recorded on Mindanao Island, namely the Volcano which reaches 2,954 meters above sea level.
The form of government of the Philippines is a Presidential Republic, meaning that the head of state and head of government is held by a president. General elections in this country have been held every six years since 1992 but cannot be re-elected or for no more than one term. The capital of the Philippines is Manila.
The Philippine national anthem is titled Lupang Hinirang with the unified language, namely Tagalog (the native language of the Filipino people) and English. Currency as a transaction tool used by the people of the Philippines is called the Peso. The Philippines achieved independence on June 12, 1898 and have been a commonwealth of the United States since 1935.
The sectors that are relied on are agriculture, industry and mining. Some of the products of the Philippines’ natural wealth include gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, and petroleum. The Philippines is one of the countries in the list of the oldest ASEAN countries before Indonesia’s independence. The Philippines joined ASEAN on the same date as Malaysia and Indonesia.
Singapore is a country on the list of ASEAN countries with the smallest area. Its area is only 728.3 km2, which is almost similar to the province in Indonesia, namely DKI Jakarta.
Even though it is a small country, Singapore should not be taken lightly even though geographically it does not have natural wealth in the form of forests or rice fields. However, its position is across the shipping lanes of countries in East Asia. Like West Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa, to Europe, Singapore has become a fairly advanced country in the trade sector with busy activities at the port.
Because of its busyness, the port of Singapore, namely the Port of Singapore, is the busiest port in the Asian region. The famous place in Singapore is the Merlion statue.
The capital city of Singapore is named Singapore, just like the name of the country. The President is the head of state, but the head of government is the Prime Minister. This is because Singapore adheres to a Parliamentary Republic system in managing its country.
Singaporeans use the Singapore Dollar currency as a transaction tool. Singapore’s National Anthem is entitled Majulah Singapura. Since 1959 Singapore has stood as a country under the rule of the British Empire like Malaysia.
Then in 1963, to be precise in September, Singapore and Malaysia merged into one under the name Federation of Malaysia. However, on August 9, 1965 Singapore decided to leave the federation and re-establish itself as a country until now.
The sector that Singapore relies on, of course, comes from trade due to the dense port activity, then there is the banking and industrial sectors. Singapore is on the list of the most developed ASEAN countries even though its area is small thanks to the country’s strategic position. Since August 8, 1967, Singapore joined ASEAN.
Thailand is a country in the list of ASEAN countries which we will discuss. In the past, Thailand was not the name used as a country, but the name used was Siam.
After the bloody revolution that occurred in this country, Siam changed to Thailand. Having an area of 513,120 km2, the country consists of hills, mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains in Thailand are in the north and west.
The highest mountain is named Doi Inthanon which has a height of 2,565 meters above sea level. The fertile area in Thailand is traversed by the Chao Phraya River which is the largest and quite beautiful river. Thailand has the nickname as the land of white elephants.
Even though in the whole world there are no white elephants. This nickname was given because the elephant is the national animal in Thailand as well as a symbol of the Thai kingdom. In the past, elephants found in Thailand were soft reddish brown and had to be handed over to the King through a special ritual.
The mention of a white elephant is only a description and only a naming because there really isn’t a single white elephant. In addition, Thailand is also dubbed as the land of a thousand pagodas because of the many pagoda buildings as places of worship for Buddhism.
The unique fact that you need to know is that Thailand is the only country on the list of ASEAN countries that was never colonized. This is not without reason, because one of the reasons Thailand was not colonized by western nations was because there were few agricultural products that could be harvested and the land did not grow well, so there was no interest from the invaders to control Thailand.
However, now everything has changed. Thailand has turned into a fertile country with abundant natural resources. Thailand’s economy pivots on the agricultural sector where rice is the main commodity. Even now Thailand is the country with the largest rice barn in Asia.
Apart from that, mining is also growing quite well where tin and manganese are found and processed as mining materials. Not to mention the results of forest wealth with teak as a commodity that is quite in demand for trade. Thailand also has territory in the form of the Isthmus of Kra peninsula.
This place is a transit point for trade ships going to Singapore. So that Thailand is also busy with trade which will further add to the wealth of this country’s income.
Thailand is a country on the list of ASEAN countries that have the form of a monarchy, more precisely a Constitutional Monarchy. Since its inception, Thailand was led by a king. His power system lasted from generation to generation through his descendants.
The king in Thailand is the most respected and honored person as head of state. For government affairs submitted to the prime minister who regulates. The national capital of Thailand is located in the city of Bangkok. The currency used in Thailand is baht. The country’s national anthem is titled Pleng Chard with Independence Day celebrated every December 5th.
The country of the blue dragon is the nickname of the next country that is included in the list of ASEAN countries, namely Vietnam. This nickname was pinned on because Vietnam is a country that has a rapidly growing industry and a fairly strong economy in 1960-1990 along with other countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, even fellow ASEAN members namely Singapore.
Vietnam is located on the Indochina Peninsula with an area of around 331,212 km2. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north. The most fertile blood in Vietnam is in the Mekong River Delta region.
Vietnam is a country that adheres to the Socialist Republic system, meaning that the head of state is held by a president while the head of government is held by the prime minister. The national capital is located in the city of Hanoi. The currency used in this country is called the dong.
The Vietnamese national anthem is Tien Quan Ca. September 2, 1945 is the independence day in this country after winning it from France. Another unique fact about the country included in the list of ASEAN countries is the ideological differences between its inhabitants.
Most of North Vietnam’s population adheres to communism because its territory is bordered by China, which also adheres to communism. While the people of South Vietnam adhere to democracy. The sectors that are relied on in this country come from agriculture, mining, and industry.
The people’s livelihood is in agriculture with the largest agricultural product being rice. Therefore, Vietnam is also included as an Asian rice barn country along with Thailand. Although independent for a long time, Vietnam only joined ASEAN on July 28, 1995.
Cambodia is the same country as Vietnam in the list of ASEAN countries, which is located on the Indochina Peninsula. Its area is estimated at around 181,035 km2. Cambodia is bordered by Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east and south, and Thailand to the west.
The nickname of this country is the Land of Angkor Wat. Giving this nickname is because Cambodia is famous for its temples that are spread all over the world, namely Angkor Wat in the city of Angkor. Even the temple is a symbol of this country.
Phnom Penh is the largest city and the capital of Cambodia. This form of country is a Constitutional Monarchy with the head of state being a king while the head of government is held by the prime minister. The currency used in this country is called riel. While the national anthem is titled Our Country.
Independence in Cambodia is commemorated every November 9, to be precise, Cambodia became independent in 1953 from French colonialism. The sector that is relied on in this country is in agriculture where rice is the largest agricultural product. In the list of ASEAN countries, Cambodia was the last country to join on April 30, 1999.
Another list of ASEAN countries located on the Indchina Peninsula is Myanmar. Its area reaches 237,955 km2. This country is surrounded by mountains and forests. Laos is a unique country because it does not have a sea.
This is quite detrimental because Laos cannot rely on marine wealth as an addition to national income. Luckily, Laos is traversed by the Mekong River so that agriculture in this country is developing well and utilizing this river as a means of transportation.
The capital of Laos is called Vientiane. The state form of Laos is a Socialist Republic. The head of state is held by a president and the head of government is held by the prime minister. The state currency of Laos is called New Kip (KP) with its national anthem titled Pheng Sat Lao. July 19, 1949 is the day Laos won its independence from France.
For sectors that are not relied on so much, one of the countries on the list of ASEAN countries relies on the agricultural sector to make ends meet. The agricultural products are rice, corn, coconut, and fruits. Since January 23, 1997, Laos joined ASEAN.
The next list of ASEAN countries is Myanmar. The area of this country is around 676,575 km2 and has two climates, namely tropical in the south and subtropical in the north. The majority of its territory is surrounded by mountains in the east and north. The central part is traversed by the Irawadi River which is the largest river in the country. The southern part is lowland with the coastline along the Andaman Sea.
Myanmar has a state capital which is in Naypyidaw City. Previously this country had its capital in Yangon before finally moving it to Naypyidaw City. In the past, this country was also not called Myanmar, but called Burma.
Myanmar adheres to the form of a Parliamentary Republic with a head of state and head of government held by a president. The country’s currency is called Kyat and its national anthem is Our Free Homeland, which means My Homeland is Free.
Myanmar won its independence from Britain on January 4, 1948. Agriculture is a reliable sector besides plantations, mining and forestry. Just like the list of other ASEAN countries that rely on the agricultural sector, rice is the main commodity produced. Since July 23, 1997, Myanmar has become part of ASEAN.
10. Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Darussalam is the second country with the smallest area in the list of ASEAN countries after Singapore. The area of this country is only 5,765 km2, which when compared with the area of Banyuwangi district of 5,770 km2, Brunei is still slightly inferior in area.
Even so, Brunei Darussalam should not be underestimated, because this country which is located on an island with Malaysia and Indonesia has quite rich mining. Brunei is known for its oil wealth and is the largest in Asia.
Not surprisingly, Brunei is a fairly wealthy country. Its territory is divided into two, namely west and east. The western part is a swampy lowland while the eastern part is a hilly area.
Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital city of Brunei Darussalam. The form of state adopted by this country is Absolute Monarchy where the head of state and head of government are led by a Sultan. This makes it the only country in the list of ASEAN countries whose state affairs and governmental affairs are handled by a Sultan.
For economic matters, the currency used in this country is the Brunei Dollar. The country’s national anthem is titled Allah Peliharalah Sultan. Brunei Darussalam won its independence on January 1, 1984 after previously on January 4, 1979 Brunei and Great Britain agreed to form cooperation and friendship. However, the national day in this country is celebrated every February 23, not January 1. Brunei joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984.
Also read articles related to the “List of ASEAN Countries” :
- International Cooperation
- International trade
- International Organization
- Forms of Cooperation with ASEAN Countries
- Definition of Macroeconomics
- Economic Recession
- Economic Globalization
- People’s Economy
- Economic agents
- Economic Problems in Indonesia
- Types of Economic Systems
- People’s Economy