Employment: Definition, Classification, Planning and Employment Issues

Edutore.com – Employment is everything related to labor. In Law No. 13 of 2013 concerning employment defines it as everything related to labor before, during and after the working period. Labor is everyone who is able to do work to produce goods or services both to meet their own needs and for the community. Check out the full explanation below, Sinaumed’s:

Definition of Employment

According to Article 1 paragraph (1) of Law Number 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower it states, “Employment is all matters relating to the workforce before, during, after the working period.”

The Labor Law Package itself consists of three laws, which include Law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower, Law No. 21 of 2000 concerning Trade Unions/Labor Unions, and Law no. 2 of 2004 concerning Settlement of Industrial Relations Disputes which is discussed in full in the Labor Law and Explanation booklet.

According to the provisions of Law no. 13 of 2003 concerning manpower and its implementing regulations, from government regulations, ministerial regulations, to related ministerial decisions, it can be concluded that there are several definitions of manpower, as follows Employment is everything related to manpower before, during and after the completion of the employment relationship period, Labor is an object, namely everyone who is able to do work to produce goods or services, for their own and other people’s needs, Worker or laborer is every person who works for others by receiving wages in the form of money or compensation in other forms and Employers are individuals or legal entities that employ other people by paying wages or other forms of compensation.

In addition to the definition according to the government regulation, experts also contribute their opinions on what is meant by manpower planning, including the following:

  • George Milkovic and Paul C. Nystrom, who said that what is meant by workforce planning is the process of forecasting, developing, implementing and controlling which ensures the company has the appropriate number of employees, the correct placement of employees, the right time, which is automatically more useful.
  • Andrew E. Sikula, who argues that workforce planning is the process of determining workforce needs and means meeting these needs so that their implementation interacts with organizational plans.
  • Miner and Miner, who stated that workforce planning is a process carried out to ensure the right number and type of people occupy a position and at the right time in the future, and who are able to do the things necessary for the organization to run in order to achieve its goal.
  • Dale Yoder states that in manpower planning there are important things that cannot be abandoned, namely: Effective use. Estimated needs. Development of policies and programs to meet needs. Review and supervise the entire process.

Next, we will discuss about manpower development in Indonesia which is regulated by various laws which you can read in the Book of Labor Laws of the Republic of Indonesia.

Manpower development has been mandated in our basic constitution, the 1945 Constitution, which is implemented based on integration through central and regional sectoral functional coordination. Meanwhile, manpower development in Indonesia itself has the following objectives: Empowering and utilizing manpower in an optimal and humane manner Realizing equal employment opportunities and provision of manpower in accordance with the needs of national and regional development Providing protection for manpower in realizing prosperity Improving the welfare of manpower and their families. The benefit of workforce planning is being able to manage the workforce to be able to work more efficiently and more effectively. With manpower planning, then the first effort that must be done is an inventory of labor which includes: the number of existing workers. qualifications of each worker. length of work for each worker. ability, knowledge and education of each workforce. potential and talent of each workforce. individual interests and concerns.

Labor Classification

In the implementation of manpower, business actors and workers bind themselves in a legal relationship through a bond or work agreement that has been agreed upon by both parties, which are written or oral in nature and based on the applicable labor laws and regulations. Rights and obligations between employers and workers are also a concern in order to create security and comfort when carrying out work activities. If a dispute arises between the employer and the workforce, the governing law is Law No. 2 of 2004 concerning Industrial Relations Dispute Settlement. Each form of dispute has a method or procedure that applies and must be followed by both parties, be it through negotiations, mediation, conciliation,

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Labor Based on Quality

Educated Workforce

An educated workforce is someone who has knowledge and expertise in a particular field. This knowledge and expertise is generally obtained through their formal education. Examples are doctors, lawyers, notaries, and so on.

Trained Workforce

The next type of workforce is a trained workforce. Trained workers are workers who generally acquire their expertise through non-formal education such as skills training, courses, and so on. Examples of welders (welders), especially underwater welders, mechanics, cooks (chefs) and so on. Although generally through non-formal education, trained workers can also go through formal education such as surgeons, forensic experts, and autopsy experts.

Uneducated and Untrained Workforce

Where the work performed does not require a person to have certain skills or obligations. A simple example is housemaids, porters, and so on.

Not Labor

Based on the definition of employment that has been previously described. Not everyone can be defined as labor. The definition of non-workers is a person who has not yet entered working age or someone who has entered working age but does not work for certain reasons. An example is a child who is less than 15 years old and someone who is more than 64 years old, housewives, students, and so on.

Labor Based on Working Limits

Workforce

The labor force is the productive age population aged 15-64 years who already have a job but are temporarily not working, or who are actively looking for work.

Not the Labor Force

Not in the labor force are those aged 10 years and over whose activities are only going to school, taking care of the household and so on. Examples of this group are: school children and students, housewives and people with disabilities.

Labor Based on Population

Labor

Labor is the entire population that is considered able to work and is able to work if there is no demand for work. According to the Labor Law, those who are classified as workers are those aged between 15 and 64 years.

Not Labor

Non-workers are those who are considered unable and unwilling to work, even though there is a demand for work. According to Labor Law No. 13 of 2003, they are residents who are out of age, namely those who are under 15 years old and over 64 years old. Examples of this group are retirees, the elderly (elderly) and children.

Manpower Planning

Manpower planning aims to carry out manpower planning systematically which can later be used as a reference in formulating policies, strategies and other manpower development programs on an ongoing basis.

The Government of Indonesia, in terms of setting policies and preparing manpower planning programs, grouped them into two groups. Macro worker planning and micro worker planning. This was compiled based on analysis and relevant data series and compiled in employment information. Changes to regulations can also occur which are influenced by technical, economic, and legal aspects which are discussed further in the book Wages in the Perspective of Indonesian Labor Law.

Employment information itself is collected from both the government and the private sector which has important elements in manpower planning.

Macro Workforce Planning

Systematic employment planning by using manpower optimally and productively to stimulate growth. The growth in question is economic and social growth on a national, regional and sectoral scale which can open up the widest possible employment opportunities, so as to increase the productivity and welfare of workers.

Micro Manpower Planning

Unlike the macro manpower planning, micro manpower planning has a smaller scope. The scope referred to here is only limited to the scope of the agency, be it the government or private companies. In terms of understanding between macro and micro manpower planning have similarities. In the case of micro worker planning, the meaning is systematic employment planning in an agency, government or private. Aiming at the optimal and productive use of manpower to achieve higher performance in related agencies.

Employment Issues

Labor problems can arise due to several factors such as education, employment opportunities and relatively low economic growth. Therefore there are labor laws that regulate these issues which you can read in Aries Harianto’s book below.

This is experienced by many countries including Indonesia, because until now there are still many unemployed or more precisely people who cannot work because of the lack of job opportunities. Labor Issues Until now, Indonesia is still experiencing employment problems such as the low quality of the workforce, the number of workers that is not proportional to employment opportunities, and the classic problem, namely the unemployment rate in Indonesia. Right in February 2019 the number of workers according to the Central Statistics Agency was 136.18 people. This figure experienced an increase of 2.24 million people compared to 2018 in the same month. The good news is that the unemployment rate in February 2019 decreased to 5.01 percent from the previous period. There are still many things that need to be fixed in order to overcome the problems above. Development of human resources, development of creative industries and programs that support small and medium enterprises can be an option in overcoming the above problems. One of the important points from the notion of employment is the optimal and efficient use of labor. Three labor problems that often occur in Indonesia:

  • Low quality of workforce – The quality of the workforce in a country can be determined by looking at the country’s educational level. Most of the workforce in Indonesia, the level of education is still low. This causes the mastery of science and technology to be low. The minimum mastery of science and technology causes low labor productivity, so this will affect the low quality of the production of goods and services.
  • Number of labor force that is not proportional to employment opportunities – An increase in the number of labor force that is not matched by expansion of employment opportunities will bring a particular burden to the economy. The labor force that is not accommodated in employment will cause unemployment. Even though the government hopes that the increasing number of workforce can be a driving force for economic development.
  • Unequal distribution of workforce – Most of the workforce in Indonesia is on the island of Java. While in other areas there is still a shortage of manpower, especially for the agricultural, plantation and forestry sectors. Thus, in Java Island there is a lot of unemployment, while in other areas there are still many natural resources that have not been optimally managed.
  • Unemployment The occurrence of the economic crisis in Indonesia resulted in many industries in Indonesia experiencing bankruptcy. As a result, many workers also stopped working. In addition, the large number of companies that went out of business resulted in narrower job opportunities. On the other hand, the number of labor force continues to increase. Thus unemployment will increase.
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Comprehensive stripping of in-depth information related to labor law in Indonesia with a focus on the rule of law. the nature of labor law, and so on, Sinaumed’s can also study in the book Labor Law in Indonesia.

 

Employment Opportunity

If we look at it from the notion of manpower in general and in the context of its development, one of the important elements of manpower planning is employment opportunities. This article will both specifically discuss employment opportunities for people with disabilities. What are the rules that support the creation of fair and equitable job opportunities in general? Come on, let’s just talk about it. Article 5 of Law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower explains in general that every worker in Indonesia has the same right to get a decent job and livelihood. Regardless of gender, ethnicity, race, religion, politics, according to the ability of the workforce concerned, including persons with disabilities.

Job Opportunities for People with Disabilities

Based on the information described above. Friends who have family members or relatives who have disabilities now know their rights to obtain decent work and livelihood. It is not justified for a company to refuse people who meet the qualifications both in terms of education and ability in the world of work on the grounds that the person concerned has limitations. In providing jobs for people with disabilities, companies must provide protection according to the type and degree of disability based on the applicable laws and regulations. Development and job training conducted by companies for people with disabilities must pay attention to the type, degree of disability, and work ability of the person concerned. The elements of workforce planning include: population and workforce employment opportunities job training including work competency labor productivity industrial relations working environment conditions wages and workforce welfare; and workers’ social security.

Macro Workforce Planning

As explained above, manpower planning is divided into macro and micro manpower planning. What is meant by macro manpower planning here is systematic manpower planning by using manpower optimally and productively to stimulate growth. The growth referred to here is economic and social growth on a national, regional and sectoral scale which can open up the widest possible employment opportunities, so as to increase the productivity and welfare of workers.

Micro Manpower Planning

Unlike the macro manpower planning, micro manpower planning has a smaller scope. The scope referred to here is only limited to the scope of the agency, be it the government or private companies. In terms of understanding between macro and micro manpower planning have similarities. In the case of micro worker planning, the meaning is systematic employment planning in an agency, government or private. Aiming at the optimal and productive use of manpower to achieve higher performance in related agencies.

Source: from various sources