Diving Is: Definition, Basic Techniques, Types, Equipment, and the Difference with Snorkeling

Diving Is – Does Sinaumed’s like sports? If so, what sports have Sinaumed’s done so far? Is it limited to badminton, football, basketball, volleyball, futsal and cycling? Well, most sports are done on land. However, has it ever occurred to Sinaumed’s to do sports activities under the sea, for example diving or snorkeling? Moreover, coupled with the beauty of the natural panorama that is under the Indonesian sea, it will definitely increase our enthusiasm to explore it. Not only will you meet various types of colorful fish, but there are also coral reefs and sea plants that are snaking. Just a little trivia here, Indonesia’s seas are already known for their beauty which is famous to foreign countries, for example in Raja Ampat, the Banda Islands, Bunaken, to Komodo Island.

Unfortunately, not everyone can do this underwater sport because they have to get a license first. However, if Sinaumed’s has not yet obtained a license but still wants to dive to the bottom of the sea, a professional can also accompany him. Until now, diving is still very popular among young people. So, what is the sport of diving? What are the types of sports diving? What equipment should be used when you want to do diving? What is the difference between diving and snorkeling, which are both under the sea? So, so that Sinaumed’s understands these things, let’s look at the following review!

What is Diving?

Basically, diving is a sporting activity in the form of diving under water for a long time with certain equipment and the objectives are varied. Diving is often also called scuba diving which is done by many people for various purposes, ranging from sports, just recreation to enjoy the beauty of the underwater, to conducting research. The main thing needed for this sport of diving is the ability to swim and a diving certificate.

So what if our swimming ability is mediocre? Reporting from detik.com , it turns out that to explore underwater panoramas by diving, you don’t have to be able to swim , you know , as long as you are good at diving. Later, we will still be accompanied by a professional and teach them to stay calm, especially when getting into the water. So, if Sinaumed’s is very interested in getting this diving certificate, don’t worry, because currently there are many diving training course institutions spread across major cities in Indonesia.

In addition, diving must also be done with a variety of special equipment and equipment. Starting from swimsuits, swimming goggles, oxygen cylinders, frog legs, to special vests. Well, even though this diving activity is done by diving, our body position doesn’t have to be prone as if we were swimming. When we reach the seabed, we can walk or even use marine propulsion vehicles.

A Brief History of Diving

When talking about the history of diving, aka diving, until it finally developed into a popular sport, surely no one can say for sure. But apparently, diving as a profession has existed since human civilization was formed. Yep, primitive humans have indeed carried out this diving activity with the simplest technique and without the aid of any tools. The more their mindset develops, the more they think about the simple tools used for this diving activity. For example, to clarify their vision while in the water, they will make simple swimming goggles where the frames are made of bamboo, walnut kernels, or wood.

Well, in Indonesia, especially in the world of wayang, this diving activity has also been mentioned. Through the character Raden Jayakatwang, for example, who is one of the sons of Aria Bima, has expertise in the form of diving in the sea. Apart from that, there are also Pearl Diving activities that have been carried out by the people of Maluku for centuries.

Basic Diving Techniques

Based on the research journal article Review of Diving , there are 3 basic techniques in this sport of diving, namely Breath Hold Diving, SCUBA Diving, and SSBA Diving. Well, here’s the description!

1. Breath Hold Diving / Skin Diving

This basic technique has two kinds, namely in the form of Googling and Snorkeling.

a) Googling

This technique is called so because the diving uses goggles. Usually, it is used by nature divers and fishermen to find pearls, sea cucumbers, shoot fish, and others. Unfortunately, this technique actually makes it difficult for divers to equalize, so they are prone to eye squeeze and baro-trauma to the ears.

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b) Snorkeling

Namely a diving technique that uses a tool in the form of a glass mask (face mask) to cover the eyes and nose, as well as a snorkel. How to dive is almost the same as googling, only this one is even easier. This is because the presence of a glass mask will make it easier for divers to equalize and swim on the surface without having to raise their heads first to take a breath.

2. SCUBA Diving

This technique is carried out at sea depths of around 18-39 m or less, depending on the needs and speed of the ocean currents. It is usually carried out for the purpose of searching for objects under the sea, research, observing the growth of marine life, and light ship repairs. Not infrequently, this technique is also used in underwater tourism objects, especially in an effort to attract visitors.

All SCUBA divers must first master the ESA (Emergency Swimming Ascent) technique, which is free swimming to the surface quickly while exhaling. In addition, to carry out this technique must also be accompanied by a professional.

3. SSBA (Surface Supply Breathing Apparatus Diving) Diving

This SSBA dive must use more sophisticated and complex equipment, right… Apart from that, the dive motion is also difficult to do. Usually, it is done to conduct research under the sea with a depth of 60 meters which takes about 40 minutes.

Types of Diving

In fact, this diving alias diving activity has many types. Some are for sports, research, to national defense and security purposes. So here is a description of the types of diving.

Based on the Use of the Tool and the Place

1. Free Diving

As the name implies, this type of diving is done freely without using any special breathing apparatus. For the use of the tool, it is only limited to frog legs and masks. However, even though it is called freediving, that doesn’t mean that everyone can do it, right… Only those who already have a certificate. If Sinaumed’s doesn’t have any diving certificate yet, but still wants to try the sensation of free diving , it’s okay to do it as long as it’s accompanied by a special instructor to keep it safe.

2. Night Diving

As the name implies, this type of diving is only done at night. Some people really like underwater views, especially at night. It will indeed look darker, but instead glowing animals will come out at this time, for example, there are jellyfish, anthias fish, and firefly squid.

Of course, the equipment must be complete , starting from masks, frog legs, breathing tubes, to water flashlights.

3.Drift Diving

This third type of diving is diving by following the flowing ocean currents, so that a little body energy is expended because it will let the body be carried away by the currents of sea water. The sensation is almost the same as if you are flying in the air!

There is one thing that needs to be done before doing this drift diving, namely checking the ocean currents and waves around it.

4. Cave Diving

As the name implies, this type of diving will be carried out in a cave. Yep, under the sea it doesn’t only contain marine life, but there is also a cave that turns out to attract the attention of many tourists. However, to do this cave diving, special skills are needed. This is because caves have limited space to move, compared to the open ocean. Plus, on our right and left sides there will be stalactites, new ones, and sharp corals.

5. Ice Diving

The next type of diving is ice diving which of course is done in ice. So, for this type of ice diving, it has procedures and methods that are slightly different from other types of diving. The ice in question is a lake or part of the sea that freezes into ice. Before diving into the ice (usually done in winter), we must first make a hole in the ice with a chainsaw as a way to enter. Well, after being perforated, it doesn’t mean that we can just go in. It is necessary to check the temperature of the water, then attach a special harness kit for diving.

This type of diving includes those that have a high risk, because the part of the water that is covered by ice is of course very cold and can make the body experience hypothermia.

Based on Purpose

  1. For the Interests of State Defense and Security

  • Tactical (Combat) Diving, namely diving that is carried out for combat tasks.
  • Submarine Rescue, diving using a submarine for rescue purposes.
  • Search & Rescue (SAR)
  • Inspection & Repair
  • Ship Salvage
  1. For Commercial Purposes

Namely the type of diving that is carried out professionally for the benefit of underwater construction. For example: offshore mining (Offshore Driving).

  1. For Scientific Interests ( Scientific Driving )

Namely the type of dives carried out for scientific purposes. For example: biology, geology, archeology, and marine research.

  1. For Sports

That is the type of diving that is done for the sake of sports or to improve the condition of health and fitness of mind and body. Diving for the purpose of this sport must use adequate equipment.

  • Skin Diving : diving that is carried out using basic diving equipment, such as masks, snorkels and fins.
  • Scuba Diving : diving that is done with scuba equipment.
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Diving Basic Equipment

Previously, it has been explained several times briefly that this diving activity requires adequate equipment to support safety, especially for beginners. Well, some of the basic equipment can be:

1. Masks

This mask, aka mask, is basic equipment in diving which is useful for covering part of the face, especially the eyes and nose. It should also be understood that the size of the mask must fit and be comfortable to wear. Other functions namely:

  • To create an air pocket between the diver’s eyes and the water, thus allowing the diver to see well underwater.
  • Prevent water from entering the nose and eyes, as well as anticipating irritation.

2. Snorkels

That is a diving tool that is usually used by skin or scuba divers. Functions can be:

  • Help divers swim without having to use air from a scuba tube.
  • Help the diver breathe without having to lift his head.
  • Allows divers to see underwater scenery properly.

3. Fins

In Indonesia, this diving equipment is called frog legs, which are indeed created to provide strength to the legs as propulsion. These fins are indeed not made to increase speed, but only increase pedaling power on the legs. There are 3 types of fins, namely:

  • Foot Pocket , which is usually used for skin diving activities. The shape is more flexible with the location of the plates more angled so that the feet don’t get tired easily.
  • Open Heel , usually used for scuba diving activities. The shape is straight and semi-rigid. Even so, it can actually provide greater strength, but still requires adjustment time for the leg muscles.
  • Adjustable Open Heel , usually used for scuba diving with large pockets for feet wearing boots. There are larger plates, so the power is also greater.

4. Boots

Namely equipment in the form of foot protectors. This tool is mandatory for use, especially in rocky areas so that it will minimize leg cramps due to cold or foot blisters. Boots must also fit properly on the feet so that diving activities continue to run safely.

5. Wet Suits

Namely diver’s protective clothing made of neoprene rubber and aerated foam bubbles. This suit of course will not absorb water and serves to protect divers from coral scratches and body heat under the surface of the water.

6. Weight belts

Apart from clothing, there are also special belts used in diving activities to regulate buoyancy. There are specific guidelines to make it easier for divers to determine the weight of the belt against body weight.

The Difference Between Diving and Snorkeling

Many people think that diving is the same as snorkeling. Even though the two are different , you know , even though they are both underwater. So, what are the differences? Come on, see the following reviews!

diving Snorkeling
Performed in water depths of up to 300 meters, requiring oxygen cylinders for breathing apparatus. Done at a depth of 1-3 meters, so it does not require oxygen cylinders. If you want to breathe, immediately raise your head to inhale oxygen from the surface of the water.
Using special techniques, even have to have a special certificate. It doesn’t require any special technique, the most important thing is being able to swim well.
In his breathing exercises, including breathing in oxygen from a tube. In practice, breathe through your mouth, not your nose.
More tools are used, ranging from masks, snorkels, oxygen cylinders, fins, boots, to clothes and special belts. The tools used are only 3 namely mask, snorkel, and frog legs.
It has various goals, ranging from scientific goals, rescue goals, work goals (profession), to recreation. The goal is for recreation and exploring underwater life.

So, that’s a review of what diving is and its basic techniques, types, and differences from snorkeling. Is Sinaumed’s interested in doing this diving activity and enjoying the underwater panorama full of marine life?


Hadi, Nurachmad. (1991). Overview of Diving. Oceana, Vol XVI (4). 

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