Definition of Gurindam: Characteristics, Types, Functions, and Examples

Meaning of Gurindam – Do you still remember your friends with literary works of poetry in Indonesian? Of course you have often heard of poetry. It turns out that the poem is divided into two, you know. Old poetry and new poetry. Old poetry including Syair, Gurindam and poetry.

But here will be thoroughly discussed about Gurindam only. Starting from the definition of gurindam, its characteristics, types, functions and complete examples. Let’s talk about it!

Gurindam meaning

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) Gurindam in general is a poem consisting of two lines and containing life advice. Gurindam’s work is an advice to fellow human beings to do good.

1. Masruchin (2017)

Old literary works in the form of poetry, consisting of two lines of sentences that have the same rhyme or rhyme. Gurindam itself has more than one stanza consisting of two lines per stanza.

In the first line as a line terms, problems, issues and agreements. While the second line is the answer as a result of a problem or thing that happened in the first line.

2. Raja Ali Hajj (1989)

A form of Malay poetry consisting of two paired lines, rhymes or rhymes and gives a complete or perfect idea in the pair. Under these circumstances, the first line can be considered as a condition (protasis) and the second line as an answer (apodosis).

3. Ismail Hamid (1989)

Gurindam comes from the Sanskrit word Kirindam which means parable. Gurindam developed in Malay society and has its own form of text or script.

4. Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana

A compound sentence that is divided into two rhyming lines. Each line is a connected sentence, which consists of a subordinate clause and a main clause, with an undetermined number of syllables for each line.

5. Harun Mat Piah

Gurindam is an old Malay poem, which has both bound and unbound forms. The bound form consists of two double lines and has three to six words with rhyme aa.

Gurindam features

As a form of literary work, gurindam certainly has its characteristics. Characteristics that are not found in other forms of literary works. The following are some characteristics of the classical Malay literary work, Gurindam.

1. Consists of two lines

The special feature of Gurindam literature is the structure of the text. The script on gurindam consists of only two lines. No more than two lines. This specificity is what distinguishes gurindam from new poetry which is more than two lines.

2. The structure of the statement is followed by consequences

A more obvious and deeper feature is the structure of the Gurindam text. The gurindam structure is built from two concepts.

The first concept of gurindam contains a statement whether it is an event, a case, and so on. For example, in the first line of this gurindam, “knowledge should not only be memorized”. Look at the concept of the first line of the gurindam which has the concept of a statement on a case.

Cases where many people have knowledge but do not practice it. The maker wants to record people who only have knowledge without any practice. Then proceed with the consequences in the second line. “But you also have to practice it.”

3. The sound at the end of the sentence is the same

Gurindam literary works, as explained above, have further distinctive characteristics. The consonant sound of the Gurindam text is the same. This means that when the consonant sound “A” is in the first line, so does the second line.

The rhymes in gurindam always end in aa, bb, cc, dd, ee and so on. If not, it means that it is not included in the category of Gurindam Malay literary works.

4. Wise advice

One of the most profound special features of gurindam is that it contains life teachings. Wise advice to fellow human beings to do good while living in the world.

In contrast to new poetry literary works that can have a general theme. Gurindam literary works can only be found in the form of life advice which is mostly influenced by religion.

5. Each line is limited

What is unique about this old poetry literary work is that each line only consists of 2 to 6 words. This is the short word that makes the reason that Gurindam is categorized as a literary work that contains noble life teachings. Even so, there are also gurindam with general themes.

Gurindam type

The Gurindam old poetry literary work has two types that Readers need to know about. Linked Gurindam and serial Gurindam. So that you don’t get confused about the difference, let’s just peel them one by one.

1. Hooked Gurindam

This first type of Gurindam has linked text between lines one and two. Likewise with the next new continues to be related.

2. Gurindam series

Unlike the hooked ones, this one has the same word in every two lines. So apart from having the same consonant sound, the first word also has something in common.

Functions of Gurindam Literary Works

Gurindam literary works are made in a special and profound way, they must have a function. Of course its function leads to good and avoids bad. Someone who reads Gurindam literature will get the intellectual function of the texts lined up with no more than 6 words.

1. Educate the soul

The authenticity of a literary work accompanied by an appreciation of life will automatically educate the soul of both the author and the reader. Gurindam, which are mostly in the form of religious advice, can serve to educate the human psyche.

2. Entertaining humans

As a work of human fiction besides functioning to better educate the human soul, gurindam can also serve to entertain you know. Gurindam themes set in “in love” are usually very entertaining for readers. Because from there you can see how exaggerated and ridiculous people who are in love can be.

3. Record the social conditions of the community

The creativity of gurindam writers who can record the social conditions of society makes this old poetry literary work function to observe the socio-cultural conditions of society. Gurindam is able to record all events in a few short sentences.

4. Conveying religious preaching

The existence of Gurindam literary works finally makes it easier for preachers to spread religious teachings. Any religion whose goal is for humans to do good and always avoid evil.

In fact, many Gurindam literary works contain the values ​​of the noble teachings of Islam and national culture. Because gurindam sentyoun is from Malay culture which has a close relationship with religion.