Types of Old Poetry – Definition, Characteristics, Examples, and Language Rules

Types of Old Poetry – In Indonesian subject matter, you must often discuss poetry. Poetry is one type of literary work that is in great demand by many people. The literary work of poetry has developed from ancient times to the present.

Therefore, there are old poems and new poems. Old poetry is generally created by ancestors for entertainment purposes and certainly contains advice for readers as well as listeners. Old poetry or can also be referred to as folk poetry, of course, has differences with new poetry.

Then, what are the types of old poetry? How is the difference between old poetry and new poetry?

Come on, look at the following explanation of the old poem!

Definition of Old Poetry

Old poetry is a type of literary poetry created by our ancestors since ancient times. In old poetry it is usually tied to lines, stanzas, rhymes, rhythms, and has not been influenced by foreign cultures.

Therefore, the creation of old poetry will be bound by various rules. These rules are:

  • There is rhyme or rhyme. Rhyme is the repetition of sounds in a rhyme.
  • Number of words in 1 line.
  • The number of lines in 1 stanza. The stanza is a single piece of poetry consisting of several lines.
  • Many syllables in each line.
  • There is a rhythm (alternation of sound units).

The creation of old poetry is usually influenced by the existence of certain religious and cultural traditions. As with other literary works, old poetry also contains messages from life that are beneficial to readers or listeners.

Characteristics of Old Poetry

  • Anonymous (no known author)
  • Passed by word of mouth (oral literature)
  • Bound by rules, starting from the number of lines in each stanza, the number of syllables, to rhyme
  • The language style is fixed (static) and cliche
  • The content is fantastic and has a castle centric theme

Old Poetry Types

1. Pantun

You definitely knows what rhyme is! In Indonesian language lessons, usually we will get material about rhymes and assignments to make a rhyme with a certain theme.

Pantun is an old poem that has an abab rhyme in its verse. Each stanza consists of 4 lines with each line consisting of 8-12 syllables. The first 2 lines are called sampiran, while the last 2 lines are the contents.

Old types of poetry are scattered throughout Indonesia, with different names. In Java, people call it parikan. In Sundanese, people call it aftershocks. Meanwhile in Aceh, people call it Rejong.

Pantuns can be categorized based on their content, for example children’s rhymes, religious rhymes or advisory rhymes, witty rhymes, and youth rhymes. Well, here is an example of a poem.

There is papaya and cucumber (a)

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There is mango and salak (b)

Instead of sitting daydreaming (a)

Better read rhymes (b)

2. Poetry

The word “poetry” comes from the Arabic language, namely “Syi’ir” which means “conscious feeling”, then develops into “Syi’ru” which means “poetry in general knowledge”.

This type of old poetry originates from Persia which was then brought to Indonesia along with the entry of Islam into the archipelago. However, over time, poetry has turned into classical Malay literature, which is currently on the verge of extinction.

In a poem, it usually uses the rhyme aaaa and contains advice or stories from a great figure. Poems usually begin with a few clichéd words, for example ” In ancient times… “, ” There was a story about a safe, secure country… “, and so on

3. Gurindam

Gurindam is a type of old poetry that was first brought by Hindus and also influenced by Hindu literature, around 100 AD. Gurindam is a form of old Malay poetry consisting of two lines of sentences with the same final rhythm (aaaa). As with other types of old poetry, gurindam also contains advice for readers or listeners.

Gurindam example:

Lack of thought, lack of strategy (a)

Of course you will get lost (a)

Whoever leaves prayer (b)

Like a house without pillars (b)

If the husband is not straight-hearted (c)

Even the wife will be thin in the future (c)

4. Carmine

Karmina can also be called pantun lightning because it is more or less the same as pantun, but shorter. Karmina only has two lines and rhymes aa. The first line is called sampiran, and the second line is called the contents. A carmine has the following characteristics:

  • Rhyme aa, ab
  • Tells of a hero (epic)
  • Contains two opposites, namely seduction and orders.

Example of carmine:

Because coconut milk is destroyed

For the mouth of the body perishes

5. Talib

Talibun is a pantun in which each stanza consists of an even number of lines, for example 6, 8 or 10 lines. In a talibun, there are the following characteristics:

  • The number of lines must be more than 4 lines and even, for example 6, 8, or 10 lines in each stanza.
  • If a stanza consists of 6 lines, the first three lines are sampiran and the last three are the contents.
  • If one stanza consists of 6 lines, then the rhyme is abcabc
  • If one stanza consists of 8 lines, the rhyme is abcdabcd

Talib example:

If the child goes to town (a)

Yu bought a mullet and bought a sampiran (b)

Long fish buy first (c)

If the child goes for a walk (a)

Mother is looking for relatives and looking for content (b)

Landlord search first (c)

6. Seloka

Seloka is a type of old poetry that is almost the same as rhyme and is also called rhyme related. In the verse there will be a connection. For example, the second line of the first stanza becomes the first line of the second stanza and the fourth line of the first stanza becomes the third line of the second stanza. Even so, the ending sound or rhyme must be the same.

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Example of a cello:

Go straight to Payakumbuh

Leaded teak wood

Where the heart will not riot

Mother is dead, father is walking

Leaded teak wood

Down the wind broke the branch

Mother is dead, father is walking

Where to submit

7. Spells

Mantra is one of the Malay literary works whose content is considered to have supernatural powers. This supernatural power is said to be able to cure illness or bring harm to someone. Therefore, for the Malay community, the existence of this mantra is not just a literary work but is also related to traditional beliefs.

Mantras can also be referred to as sacred prayers that contain supernatural powers and are used as a means to make it easier to achieve something with shortcuts. Even so, the true mantra is an oral literary work created by the ancestors and has become the culture of the archipelago.

A mantra generally has the following characteristics,

  • Has rhymes abcdabc, abcdabcd, abcde abcde
  • Oral
  • It is believed to have sacred or magical powers
  • There are repetitions
  • Has a figure of speech metaphor
  • Is esoferik (special language between the speaker and the interlocutor)
  • Mysterious
  • Freer than other old poems in syllables, lines and rhymes

Spell example:

Assalamualaikum eldest daughter

The one with the flowing simayang

Come on little one, come here

I put your hair in a bun

I brought ivory taps

Will wash your face

Linguistic Rules in Old Poetry

In the linguistic rules found in old poetry, it generally contains figure of speech or figurative language. The use of this figure of speech is believed to make the lines and stanzas in old poetry more “alive” and stimulate the reader. There are various types of figurative language used, namely:

  • Metaphor
  • Allegory
  • Parable
  • personification
  • Synecdoche
  • metonymy
  • Epic parable
  • Simile

In addition, in old poetry, words are often used to create an aesthetic effect or beauty. Therefore, the choice of words and a series of stylish words are important elements in the creation of an old poem.

Well, that’s the type, understanding, characteristics, examples, and rules of language from old poetry. As a young generation living in a digital era like this does not necessarily make us forget the existence of old poetry. In fact, we must preserve the existence of old poetry as literary works left by our ancestors because they contain many meanings and advice for everyday life.