Understanding the Purpose and Function of Education in Indonesia

Understanding the Purpose and Functions of Education in Indonesia – Education is actually something that has a role as a foundation in human life. Therefore, the implementation of education must be carried out as well as possible and oriented towards the future. Education itself has the main goal of becoming a medium for developing potential and educating people so that they are ready to face life in the future.

Education in a country can be said to be one of the most important things to pay attention to and improve. The reason is that improving the education system that is running well is directly the success of a country in carrying out human resource development which will later hold the responsibility of a country.

In a broad scope, education can be regarded as a process of acquiring knowledge, skills and habits that will be used as a legacy from one generation to the next. The learning process itself starts from teaching, training, to research. Education can also be a way to improve intelligence, character, personality, and skills that will benefit oneself and others around them.

In a narrow context, education is usually understood as a school. School is a place for students or pupils to carry out the learning process with the aim of gaining knowledge and having an understanding of something that makes them critical and creative human beings.

A. Educational Objectives

One of the main goals that should be an orientation in education is to develop human potential and educate people to be better. The purpose of this education is contained in Law Number 20 of 2003 which reads as follows:

“Developing capabilities and forming dignified national character and civilization in the framework of educating the nation’s life, aims to develop the potential of students to become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty, have noble character, are healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become democratic and responsible citizens.”

However, before continuing to discuss the goals of national education according to Law Number 20 of 2003. We need to look at the development of educational goals from the beginning of independence to the most recent. The following are the educational objectives of regulations that have been passed by the Indonesian government from year to year:

1. Educational Objectives According to Law Number 4 of 1950

Law Number 4 of 1950 or changed to Law Number 12 of 1954 is the Law concerning the National Education System which was first ratified and used by the Indonesian government. The implementation of education is actually not born right away, many Indonesian educations go through quite a long process to achieve Indonesia’s own unique education.

Education itself is not preparation for life, but education is life for humanity itself. Even though the Indonesian government at the beginning of independence had passed Law no. 4 of 1950, but the educational process that occurs in society is still ongoing using the colonial education system, and is beginning to be implemented slowly.

As a law passed by the newly independent country, Law no. 4 of 1950 had the aim of changing from a colonial education system to an education system that paid more attention to the people who had just become independent. The spirit of liberating the Indonesian people is the main objective of this Law. This can be seen in article 3 and article 4 below:

a. Article 3

Based on Chapter III Article 3 of Law Number 4 of 1950, the purpose of Indonesian state education is to form capable moral men and make them citizens who are democratic and responsible for the welfare of society and the Indonesian homeland.

b. Article 4

Based on Chapter II Article 4 of Law Number 4 of 1950, the objectives of education and teaching to be achieved are to create human beings who believe in and are devoted to God Almighty and have noble character, have knowledge and skills, physical and spiritual health, personality steady and independent as well as a sense of social and national responsibility. The purpose of education is directly adjusted to the principles contained in the five precepts of Pancasila and are written in the 1945 Constitution.

2. Educational Objectives According to Law no. 2 of 1985

After Law No. 4 of 1950 became the basis of the goals of education in the early days of independence. The development of the times finally made the government of President Soeharto’s era at that time make additions to Indonesia’s educational goals.

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Based on Law no. 2 of 1985, the purpose of education is to educate the nation’s life and also to develop a complete human being. The meaning of the whole human being mentioned in article 4 can be interpreted as a comprehensively intelligent human being.

This is in accordance with the eight types of intelligence that have been formulated in the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education, namely: faith and piety to God Almighty, noble character, adequate skills and knowledge, good physical and spiritual health, and a strong personality, independent, and also have a sense of responsibility in the affairs of society and the nation.

3. Educational Objectives According to Law No. 20 of 2003

Based on Chapter II Article 2 of Law Number 20 of 2003, the basis of national education is national education based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Normatively, these basic provisions on national education are similar to the previous law.

Furthermore, referring to article 3 of Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it reads that the purpose of national education is to develop the potential of students so that they become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty, have noble character, are healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative. , independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible.

The National Education Goals contained in Law no. 20 of 2003 is an educational goal that makes Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia as the basis for organizing education.

Law Number 20 of 2003 can be concluded that the purpose of Indonesian education is to develop the potential of students, in this case students, so that they can become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty.
In addition, students are also expected to have a personality that is noble, knowledgeable, independent, noble, creative, healthy, and the most important thing is to shape students to become citizens who have a democratic attitude and are also responsible.

Acquisition and development of education can make students have the will or motivation to become better individuals in various aspects of life. A good education from kindergarten to university is also a major requirement needed to help advance the Indonesian nation.

Law Number 20 of 2003 also provides limitations on what is the meaning of education. This limitation emphasizes that education is a conscious and planned effort that is carried out to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students can play an active role in developing their potential.

Efforts in an effort to develop this potential will help students to have spiritual strength in religious matters, self-control, intelligence, noble character, personality, and also the skills needed by students personally, society, nation, and also the state.

B. Educational Objectives According to Experts

Discussing the goals of education in Indonesia, there are various opinions from education experts expressed both in writing and orally. The following are some opinions regarding educational goals that need to be known, including:

1. Dr. John Dewey

John Dewey as an educational expert reveals the purpose of education based on a process of experience. According to him, education is a process of experience. For John Dewey, life is a growth, the purpose of this opinion is to make education can be interpreted as an effort to help human inner growth without being limited by age. The growth process itself is a process of adapting to each phase by adding skills in human development.

2. Ki Hadjar Dewantara

Ki Hajar Dewantara as the first Indonesian minister of education revealed that the purpose of education is to meet the needs of children’s growth and development. This opinion can be interpreted as an attempt to guide students according to their natural abilities. The hope is that humans and members of society can achieve the highest safety and happiness in life.

According to Ki Hajar Dewantara, the purpose of education is to educate children so they can become human beings who have perfection in life. A perfect life can be interpreted as someone who has a life and livelihood that is in harmony with nature or in other words according to his nature, and also in harmony with society.

 

 

3. Aristotle

According to the philosopher from Greece, Aristotle, the purpose of education is preparation or provision for a decent job or activity. Education should be organized based on guidelines on law so that it corresponds (correspondence) with the results of psychological analysis, and also follows gradual progress, both physically (physically) and mentally (mentally or spirit).

The implementation of education at some point must be the responsibility of the state, this is because education is in the interests of the state in developing its human resources. The state is the highest social institution whose duty is to guarantee the highest human goal, namely human happiness.

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4. Al-Ghazali

According to the philosopher from the Middle East, Al-Ghazali, the goal of education is the process of becoming a perfect human being. This process is a learning process that humanizes humans through a variety of knowledge which is conveyed in stages from the appearance of the human until the human dies. The learning process itself is the responsibility of parents and society, with their attitude towards God.

5. Umar Tirtarahardja and La Sulo

Umar Tirtarahardja and La Sulo revealed that educational goals actually have abstract values. Educational goals should be general, ideal, and have a very broad content. As a result, these educational goals can be realized in actual practice.

Both of these experts have the opinion that education should be a form of action whose object is the target or addressed to students when they are in certain situations and conditions, and also at certain times and places, by using certain tools or media.
Education itself must be carried out and only allows it to be realized, provided that the goals to be achieved have been made clearer or explicit, are concrete, and also cover a limited scope of content.

The general goals of education must be presented in greater detail. This has the intention that educational goals are more specific and limited. That way, the process of realizing educational goals can be carried out more easily, especially in practice.

6. Ahmadis

Furthermore, the purpose of education according to Ahmadi is revealed in his work entitled “Educational Sciences”. Ahmadi believes that the purpose of education according to the Islamic view is to give birth to a generation of people who have intelligence, obedience, health, and obedience to Allah SWT and stay away from His prohibitions.

7. Suardi

In his book entitled “Introduction to Theory and Application of Education”, Suardi argues that the purpose of education is a result of reflection that will be obtained as a result of the process of giving or delivering education to students or students who have completed it.

The process for achieving these educational goals is referred to as the learning process and the teaching process. This teaching and learning process is also included in the activity of providing a stimulus in the form of knowledge conveyed from the teacher or teacher to students or students.

The process of achieving educational goals also includes allowing students to work on several practice questions and various useful activities carried out during the teaching and learning process. All of these processes are carried out so that students achieve their educational goals while simultaneously moving towards the direction and goals of education in total.

8. H. Alamsyah Queen Prawira Negara

According to H. Alamsyah Ratu Prawira Negara, the goal of national education is a process directed at increasing piety to God Almighty. This process also needs assistance as an effort to improve intelligence, skills, expertise, and various other effective aspects.
The effective aspects that become companions in an effort to achieve educational goals include guiding students to have higher and better character, forming a strong personality, and also strengthening enthusiasm in national affairs.

C. Educational Function

The purpose of education can ultimately be reduced to educational functions such as developing abilities, forming personality so that you can become a better person. The following are educational functions that you need to know, including:

1. To prepare all human beings to be independent in earning their own living
2. Building and developing the interests and talents of every human being for personal satisfaction and public interest
3. Realizing the preservation of community culture
4. Training skills needed for participation in democracy
5. Providing resources social innovation in society

 

 

D. Types of Education

After understanding the purpose and function of education, then we will discuss the types of education. The following is an explanation of the three types of education, namely formal education, non-formal education and informal education:

1. Formal Education

Formal education is a type of education that is structured because it is under the responsibility of the ministry. Formal education generally has levels of education from Early Childhood Education (PAUD), Basic Education (SD), Secondary Education (SMP), Secondary Education (SMA) and Higher Education (University).

2. Non-Formal Education

Non-formal education is a type of education outside of formal education which is carried out in stages and structured. This type of education has equality with the results of formal education programs through an assessment process from the authorities. Examples include Course Institutions, Islamic Boarding Schools, Taklim Assembly, Playgroups, Studios and others.

3. Informal Education

Informal education is education that comes from family and environment. Information education has a goal so that students can learn more independently. Forms of informal education that we often find such as religion, character, ethics, manners, morals and socialization.

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