Pancasila is the ideology and basis of the Indonesian nation state. Pancasila has become a basis for all decisions of the Indonesian nation. The ideology of this country is a reflection and personality of the Indonesian nation.
Pancasila is a basis or guideline in governing the Indonesian government and the life of the Indonesian people in the nation and state.
Pancasila is also often referred to as the basis and ideology of the state and is one of the four pillars of nationality, which consists of Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, and Unity in Diversity which is explained in the Pancasila book.
1. Literal Understanding of Pancasila
Pancasila literally means five principles. Pancasila comes from Sanskrit, panca which means five, and sila which means foundation. Pancasila has been formulated by the founding ancestors of the Indonesian nation. With Pancasila, the Indonesian state has a foundation for a state. This foundation is used as a guide so that the Indonesian people are not easily influenced by other nations.
Pancasila as the basis of the state has the symbol of the golden Garuda bird. On the eagle’s chest are symbols for each precept, a star, a chain, a banyan tree, a bull’s head as well as rice and cotton.
2. Definition of Pancasila Etymologically
Pancasila is the foundation of the Indonesian state. Etymologically Pancasila comes from Sanskrit. In language, Moh. Yamin said that Pancasila consists of two words, namely panca and syila. Panca means five, while syila means basic if sila means rules of good behavior. The word was finally taken to be the word ‘susila’ in Indonesian.
Therefore, etymologically, what is meant by Pancasila is the panca syila with the short vowel i. In language it means the basis which has five elements. The term Pancasila was originally obtained from Buddhist literature from India. Tripitaka, the book of Buddhist teachings which consists of three books namely Suttha Pitaka, Abhidama Pitaka, and Vinaya Pitaka. In the concept of Buddhism, there is a moral teaching to reach nirvana with Samadhi. Each group has different moral obligations. These moral teachings are Dasasila, Saptasila and Pancasila.
According to the Buddhist concept, the moral teachings of Pancasila are five rules or five prohibitions that must be obeyed and implemented. Pancasila or the five rules are:
- Panatipata veramani sikhapadam samadiyani, this means do not take the lives of other living things. This is a prohibition against killing living beings.
- Dinna dana veramani sikhapadam, this means do not take things that are not given to us. This is an order not to steal or take other people’s things that are not ours.
- Kameshu micchacara veramani sikhapadam samadiyani, this means don’t have sex. This is an order not to commit adultery or have sex with someone who is not their partner.
- Musavada veramani sikhapadam samadiyani, this means do not say or utter false words. This is an injunction not to lie or say things that never happened.
- Sura meraya masjja pamada tikana veramani, this means don’t consume drinks that can make your mind go away. This is an order to stay away from drinks that can intoxicate and deprive the mind.
In ancient times, Indian culture had entered Indonesian territory through Hindu and Buddhist teachings. Since the Majapahit era, Buddhist teachings have entered Javanese literature, including the concept of Pancasila. It was from there that the word Pancasila, which came from Sanskrit, was absorbed by the ancient Javanese language. Even during the Majapahit era, the teachings of Shiva Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism coexisted peacefully.
After the collapse of Majapahit came his time, Islam slowly began to spread throughout Indonesia. However, remnants of Buddhist teachings are still very strong in Javanese society. There is a moral teaching called Ma Lima or M 5. Named M 5 because all the moral teachings or five prohibitions start with the letter M. The five prohibitions are Mateni which means killing, Maling which means stealing, Madon which means adultery, drunkenness which means consuming liquor, and Main which is meant by gambling.
3. Definition of Pancasila in Terminology
Pancasila terminology has been used by Ir. Soekarno since June 1, 1945, when the BPUPKI trial took place. After the BPUPKI was disbanded because it was considered successful in carrying out its duties, a Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence was formed. PPKI was formed to continue BPUPKI’s tasks and prepare for Indonesian independence. After the proclamation was successfully carried out, the day after PPKI succeeded in ratifying the 1945 Constitution. At that time the Constitution consisted of the preamble to the 1945 Constitution and 37 articles.
The 1945 Constitution contains the Pancasila precepts, namely Belief in One God, Just and Civilized Humanity, Indonesian Unity, Democracy led by wisdom in deliberations/representation, and social justice for all Indonesian people. The Pancasila formulation has been ratified as the foundation of the Indonesian state.
Pancasila is used for self-development and the realization of ideals in accordance with existing rules. And this is discussed through the values that exist in Pancasila and can be studied in the book Pancasila and Citizenship Education.
Previously, there were several proposed formulations. However, from the various proposed formulations, constitutionally valid Pancasila is the Pancasila formulation contained in the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution. This was also reinforced by Presidential Decree No. 12 dated April 13, 1968. In addition, there is also Decree No.XX/MPRS/1966 emphasized that the legal writing, pronunciation and formulation of Pancasila as the basis of the Indonesian state is what is contained in the 1945 Constitution.
4. Legal formulation of Pancasila
The legal formulation of Pancasila is the formulation contained in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution. This formulation was also ratified by Presidential Decree No. 12 dated 13 April 1968. In addition, there is also Decree No.XX/MPRS/1966. The legal formulation of Pancasila is:
- Belief in the one and only God
- Just and civilized humanity
- the unity of Indonesia
- Democracy led by wisdom in deliberations/representation.
- Social justice for all the people of Indonesia.
Definition of Value
Value is a process of one’s life that always experiences development. According to Soerjono Soekanto, value is an abstract concept that exists in humans. It also depends on the value that someone thinks is good or bad value. A good value will definitely describe a good person, otherwise a bad score will describe a bad person and is less liked by some groups of people.
According to Simanjuntak, value is a person’s or group’s thoughts on good behavior or bad behavior. This behavior arises because of the traditions adopted by the community. This tradition is carried out continuously and repeatedly. Meanwhile, Robert MZ Lawang argues that value is a thought that must be owned by everyone. However, these values can change a person’s behavior. From there one’s life can be seen whether it is good or bad.
Social values have characteristics, namely:
1. Value is created in a social environment.
Every human being will certainly continue to learn about values over time. For example, according to someone, education up to university is very high, because it can achieve success. However, there are also those who think that education up to university is not a benchmark for achieving success. From the case above, it shows that value is not innate, but is created in the social environment.
2. Values have a different influence on a person and society
Every human being certainly has a different outlook in life. This shows that the value gives a different influence on someone. For example like the example above. College is very influential for the success of one’s life. But there are also those who think friendship and a good environment can lead to success and are more important than a high degree.
3. Values are formed continuously through acculturation and social interaction
In a person, a value will have a different value over time. For example, from the example above, someone considers a degree and education to a higher level to be very important values. But because over time a person meets new people, he will definitely have a different view of the values he had before.
4. Values involve human feelings
In carrying out a value, someone will involve feelings or emotions in it. For example, when you think college is important, then you will be willing to save for your child’s future so that your child doesn’t have to worry about taking education to a higher level.
After knowing the various meanings of value from several experts and knowing their characteristics, here are the types of values that exist.
1. Religious values
Religious values are important values for someone who adheres to a religion. Because these values are related to the beliefs or religions adhered to by that individual. The source of religious values comes from God who is believed. This religious value is used as a guide by someone from God.
2. Value Beauty
The value of beauty is an element of taste that comes from human beings. The value of beauty is also often referred to as aesthetic value. Beauty itself has a very broad meaning and of course everyone has different values of beauty.
3. Truth Value
The value of truth is a value that is created by the human mind and also morals. This truth value has existed since birth, therefore the value of truth is often considered as the nature of God which has been given to all human beings.
4. Social Value
Social values are values that are always related to human actions. Social value is a value that already exists in a person. This social value can change the behavior or actions of a person.
5. Moral Values
Moral values are a view of a person’s desires. Moral values are also considered as good values in a person. To see a moral value can be seen from a conversation between several people. For example, when you overhear a conversation between a child and a mother. Generally, a child will use language that is more polite to their parents. This is due to differences in age and ethics that exist in people’s lives.
6. Material values
Material values are values that are useful for human physique. An example is food. For some people food has its own value. Delicious and delicious food can certainly make someone happy. Examples of some items that have other material values are shelter, clothing and other basic human needs.
7. Vital values
Vital value is something that is useful for humans in carrying out their activities. For example, a chef will consider the stove, spatula and seasonings to be vital or important values. Because without these items a chef cannot work optimally.
The Noble Values of Pancasila
Pancasila is formed from cultural values, customary values and religious values that already exist in Indonesian society. Pancasila is a source of values in social and state life for the Indonesian nation. Pancasila is the moral basis or benchmark for behavior. In Pancasila there are three noble values, namely:
1. Basic Values
These basic values are principles based on culture and values within the Indonesian nation which are abstract in nature. This value tends not to change, but can always follow the changing times. The basic values contained in Pancasila can be continuously interpreted and also implemented. If the basic values of Pancasila are reinterpreted, new values will be obtained that can be implemented according to the times. The basic values in Pancasila are divinity, humanity, unity, democracy and justice.
These values form the basis of state philosophy as well as the philosophy of the Indonesian nation that exists today. Understand more deeply through the book Pancasila by Drs. H. Mahpudin Noor.
2. Instrumental Value
Instrumental values are the elaboration of the basic values in Pancasila. These instrumental values take the form of social norms and legal norms. The instrumental values of Pancasila are the 1945 Constitution, MPR Decree, UU no. 2 of 1999 which discusses political parties, Law No. 39 of 1999 which discusses human rights, and others.
3. The Value of Praxis
Value praxis is a further elaboration of basic values and instrumental values. This value is applied in everyday life in the lives of Indonesian people.
Because praxis values are the elaboration of basic values and instrumental values, implementing praxis values should not deviate from these two values.
The meaning or meaning of Pancasila which is used as the way of life of the Indonesian nation consists of the crystallization of life experiences in the course of the history of the Indonesian nation which has shaped attitudes, character, behavior, values, philosophical views, morals, ethics which are discussed in the book Pancasila Democracy System Second Edition.
An example of the value of praxis as the practice of the Pancasila precepts is making friends with everyone regardless of ethnicity and religion, working together and helping each other, respecting the differences that exist in humans.
The Meaning of Pancasila as a Source of Value
The acceptance of Pancasila as the basis of the state and national ideology brings a logical consequence that Pancasila values are used as the basic foundation, the fundamental basis for the administration of the Indonesian state. As discussed in the second chapter of the Pancasila Character Person book which consists of various other discussion of Pancasila divided into 7 sections.
Every precept in Pancasila contains different values, but all of these values are one unit. The following are the values contained in Pancasila.
1. Divine Values
In this first precept, there is a value that the Indonesian state was founded on divine values. Indonesian society itself adheres to many religions, or a pluralistic society. There are Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism. With this first precept being the basis for the other four precepts. The meaning of this first precept is to believe in God Almighty with each other’s beliefs and mutual respect for the beliefs of others.
2. Human Values
In this second precept contains human values. This human value is the basis for carrying out the life of the nation and state. With these precepts it is hoped that the Indonesian state must always uphold human values, human dignity as creatures that have manners.
3. The Value of Unity
In this third precept contains the value of unity. This value means that the state is a community of life among the elements in society such as ethnicity, religion and race. This is meant that the differences that exist in Indonesian society are not a conflict that can divide the Indonesian nation.
4. Community Value
In this fourth precept there is a populist value in it. This value of justice means that in running the Indonesian state, democracy must be prioritized. The state must also give freedom but still be accompanied by mutual responsibility towards one another. In this fourth precept, there is also the intention that the Indonesian people and state must recognize and accept the differences that exist so that these differences do not become a problem in the life of the nation and state.
5. Value of Justice
In the fifth precept there is a value of justice in it. This value is a state goal to live in one goal. This justice must be realized in the Indonesian state. Therefore, Indonesian society must be fair to others, fair to themselves and not forgetting the individual’s relationship with God Almighty.
In its application, we as a society and the nation of Indonesia must always animate and reflect the values contained in the 5 precepts of Pancasila and this can be learned through the Pancasila Existence & Actualization book.
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