Parts of a Plant Cell Composition – Plant cell composition basically consists of several structures wrapped in a cell wall. Plants themselves can be said to have a fairly important role in other living things, especially the living environment of creatures.
Meanwhile, the constituent cells in plants are known to have a function as a regulator of all their activities, from forming plants to processing the growth and development of the plant itself.
Well, this article will present an explanation of what actually makes up a plant cell. Based on the material quoted from the book Fundamentals of Plant Physiology by Linda Advinda, here are some of the constituents of plant cells that you need to know, including:
A. Parts of Plant Cells
1. Cell membranes
The cell membrane or often also called the plasma membrane is a structure that almost all living things have, from animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, archaea, to protists.
The cell membrane itself can be analogous to a plastic bag that is used to wrap all shopping items. The cell membrane is known as the outermost layer that wraps and protects the cell components inside. This cell membrane has a layer composed of various chemical compounds, ranging from lipids (phospholipids), proteins, to carbohydrates.
Apart from that, you also need to know that the cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. Cytoplasm is basically a complex part of the cell. The cytoplasm actually contains many molecules, such as colou and several other cell organelles. This allows the plasma membrane to function as a regulator of several solutes that enter and leave the cell at once in osmosis.
As the outermost part of the cell structure of living things, the cell membrane is located before the cell wall in the cell structure of plants and fungi. Therefore, the cell membrane is semipermeable. This is due to the structure of phospholipids. Semipermeable itself is a property that only allows certain substances to enter the cell.
2. Cell Wall
Unlike the cell membranes of animals or humans, plant and fungal cells are known to have a unique structure, namely the cell wall. With the cell wall, this makes plants have a unique structure compared to cells in animals.
The cell wall that is owned by this plant has a function as a protector of plant cells. Not only that, the cell wall also plays a role in maintaining the shape of the cell while preventing excessive water absorption. The cell wall is also thought to be the cause of plants not being able to move freely or being stiff. Even so, plants still have a motion called passive motion or not moving positions.
Plant cells themselves have two types of cell walls, namely primary and secondary cells. The primary cell wall lies between the middle lamella and the secondary cell wall. Some of the ingredients contained in the primary cell wall are hemicellulose, cellulose (low levels), lipids and proteins. This makes the primary cell wall more flexible and thinner than the secondary cell wall because it is formed when the cell divides.
Meanwhile, cells that have been thickened with lignin will form a secondary cell wall. Therefore, the secondary cell wall is known to have a thicker, stiffer, and stronger texture than the primary cell wall. In addition to the presence of lignin substances, the secondary cell walls also contain compounds such as cellulose and hemicellulose.
The fluid in the cell that is between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is known as the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm itself basically has two constituent components, namely the cytosol and several other organelles. Cytosol is a constituent component that has a liquid part of the cytoplasm and surrounds the organelles.
Therefore, there is about 70 to 90% water in it with various solute contents. These various dissolved substances consist of proteins, lipids, and other waste substances such as carbon dioxide. The cytosol itself has a function as a place for chemical reactions. For example, the chemical reaction in glycolysis. Not only the cytosol, in the cytoplasm there are also various organelles that are separate from the cell structure.
So, here are some of the functions of the cytoplasm that you need to know, including:
- As a place where chemical reactions take place,
- Store various types of chemicals used for cell metabolism processes
- Solvent for all proteins and compounds in the cell
- Intermediaries for the transfer of materials from outside the cell to the organelles or cell nucleus
The nucleus itself can be said to be the core of the cells that are owned by plants. This nucleus is the center of cell administration which can direct metabolic processes, ranging from growth, division, even protein synthesis. In the nucleus or cell nucleus, chromosomes or a genetic component are often stored, which are composed of various chromatin threads.
Ribosomes become one part of the next plant cell constituent. These ribosomes can be understood as particles smaller than mitochondria. Although small, ribosomes are the building blocks of plant cells that have a compact size. Until now, the only tool that could be used to see ribosomes in plant cells was the electron microscope.
Ribosomes themselves are very easy to find in plant cells. This is because ribosomes are scattered in the cytoplasm or attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum (RE). These organelles are usually composed of RNA and protein. Therefore, ribosomes can be said to be very functional for making proteins in plant cells.
6. Endoplasmic Reticulum
After discussing the ribosome, this section will also discuss the endoplasmic reticulum or commonly abbreviated as RE. RE itself can be understood as a cell organ that acts as a channel in the cytoplasm that connects the cell membrane to the nucleus.
The endoplasmic reticulum itself is often referred to as the transport system that exists in plant cells for various molecules in the cell. However, not only in cells, ER can also transport various molecules between cells through plasmodesmata. This makes this cell organ has a function as a protein transport.
In addition, the endoplasmic reticulum is known to have a structure that is shaped like a multi-layered sac. These multi-layered sacs are often also referred to as cisternae. Endoplasmic reticulum in plant cell structure consists of two types, namely rough ER and smooth ER. The rough endoplasmic reticulum can be characterized by the presence of ribosomes covering it. Meanwhile, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is not covered by ribosomes.
7. Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus was originally discovered by a histologist and pathologist from Italy, a figure named Camillo Golgi. In plant constituent cells, the Golgi body is also commonly referred to as a dictyosome. The Golgi apparatus can be understood as a pile of membrane-lined sacks whose job is to prepare proteins to be exported from the cell.
Mitochondria can be regarded as a cell organelle that has a complex structure to form energy for plants. In other living things, mitochondria can be used as a place for respiration. Respiration itself is a process of decomposition or catabolism that is used to produce energy or energy for living processes to take place.
Mitochondria are known to be found in cells that have high metabolic activity and require large amounts of ATP. Not surprisingly, if the structure of mitochondria can be seen using an electron microscope. Mitochondria are surrounded by two layers of the membrane.
The cells that make up the next plant are lysosomes. This lysosome itself can be said to be the digestive center of the cell which produces various types of enzymes. Lysosomes are also known to be able to break down food particles and recycle worn out cell components.
Vacuoles are adult plant cells filled with fluid and contain dissolved inorganic ions, organic acids, sugars, enzymes, and other secondary metabolites. In simple terms, a vacuole can be said to have a function as a repository for toxic waste and other useful products, such as water. Vacuoles in plant cells occupy the range from 80 to 90% of the total cell volume.
The last cell organ that only exists in plants is the chloroplast. Chloroplasts can be understood as cell organs that contain green pigments that capture sunlight to be converted into sugar. This process itself is usually referred to as photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates and oxygen in plants.
In addition, there are also some plants that have chromoplast cell organs. Chromoplast itself can be said as a cell organelle that has a green or orange color. These cell organelles are usually found in plants, such as tubers, carrots, and also flowers.
Almost the same as chloroplasts and chromoplasts, leucoplasts are cell organelles that do not have color pigments. These leucoplasts are usually located in parts of plants that are not green, such as roots or stems. Meanwhile, amyloplasts were also found in the roots and stems of plants. Amyloplast has a function as a storage product of photosynthesis in the form of flour.
This is an explanation of the composition of plant cells. Basically, there are many materials that make up plant cells. Therefore, you need to read material about the constituents of plant cells over and over again to understand more.
Book Recommendations & Related Articles