The negative impact of air pollution – Air pollution can be caused by many things, but the most important is due to the spread of various hazardous chemicals into the earth’s atmosphere. Air pollution is also known as air pollution. Air pollution can occur naturally as well as artificially.
Based on what is explained by the Encyclopedia Britannica , air pollution is defined as the release of various kinds of gases, then solid objects that have been split into pieces to become fine particles or also liquid aerosols into the earth’s atmosphere.
The spread spreads at a very fast rate and exceeds the capacity limit that should be naturally released into nature and the environment which is then used to dispose, absorb and dissolve it.
Quoting from National Geographic , air pollution can be interpreted as a mixture of fine particles and gases whose capacity has exceeded concentrations which are very dangerous both outside and indoors. These very dangerous pollutants are smoke which is usually emitted by exhaust, or factory smoke, then methane, soot, pollen, carbon dioxide and others which are very dangerous.
Reporting from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), air pollution is defined again as pollutants released into the air, and these pollutants cause damage to human health and of course the planet Earth inhabited by humans as a whole.
Causes of Air Pollution
There are many factors and causes of air pollution, but of the many causes, 70% are pollutants caused by emissions from motorized vehicles.
Motorized vehicles are the biggest polluters because they emit a lot of substances that are very dangerous and damage human health, including destroying the environment as well.
These hazardous substances include lead/lead (Pb), photochemical oxides (Ox), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC).
In his own calculations, motor vehicles contribute nearly 100% lead, then 13-14% suspended particulate matter (SPM), 34-73% nitrogen oxides (NOx), and then almost all of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the air.
If air pollution is caused by motorized vehicles, then the main source of dust comes from burning produced by household waste. The results of this combustion amount to 41% of the total amount and are a source of dust in the city of Jakarta.
Then industry and also factories have a bad influence on the air by being the main producer of sulfur dioxide. If we look at a big city like Jakarta, the concentration of lead is already very pathetic with the amount 100 times greater and on the threshold.
If earlier we calculated the percentage of air pollution in Indonesia, now let’s look at air pollution at the world level. Where (WHO) as a world-level health organization has calculated that 98% of cities with a population of more than 100,000 with relatively low incomes cannot meet the criteria of air quality standards so that the country has air pollution which is very disturbing.
Then based on the data, countries with high incomes have succeeded in reducing 52% of air pollution levels that damage their environment. If we look at conditions in general, then air pollution comes from two causes and sources, here are two sources that cause air pollution:
1. Natural Source
Maybe some of us have never thought that natural sources from nature can actually cause air pollution. However, in fact natural sources can also be a cause.
An example of a natural source of air pollution is dust which is then carried by the wind, then during the photosynthesis process there will be oxygen coming out of the plants which can also cause pollution.
Then other causes of air pollution come from natural sources, such as smoke from burning various flammable objects, active volcanoes that erupt can create pollution, forest fires caused by long dry seasons not caused by human activities, and many more. Again.
2. Artificial Source
Furthermore, the second cause of pollution is pollution and pollution caused by activities originating from human actions. Man-made sources are then further divided into two things, there is outdoor pollution and there is also indoor pollution.
a. Source of outdoor pollution
Sources of pollution caused from outdoors, namely pollution due to power plants, motor vehicle fumes which are very dangerous, also known as motor vehicle emissions, combustion carried out in the industrial sector, building heating systems and management, and others.
Smoke is a very prominent feature in air pollution. Smoke can be generated and emitted as a result of various forms of combustion such as burning of biomass, smoke from stoves, as well as factory and vehicle exhaust.
b. Sources of indoor pollution
If earlier we discussed sources of outdoor pollution, now we discuss indoor sources of pollution. This pollution usually occurs in European countries that have indoor heaters to warm the body. Although this is simple, in fact it still triggers air pollution.
After understanding and understanding the causes of air pollution because of the source of its appearance. We also need to understand that there are many more factors that are one of the triggers and causes of air pollution.
Furthermore, we can see that from the various activities carried out by humans, these activities are unknowingly damaging to the earth, of course destroying the quality of the air on earth.
Air Pollution As a Result of Human Activities
The following are the causes of air pollution resulting from human activities that must be known:
1. Burning of fossil fuels
Fossil fuels which then undergo a combustion process can turn into harmful particles which then damage air quality. Sulfur dioxide is an emission that results from the combustion process carried out on coal, petroleum, and also other materials. Usually the combustion products are used to generate electricity.
Motor vehicles that require gasoline as a condition to obtain the energy used to run the motor. In other words, the motorized vehicles that we use also experience the combustion process. The combustion from motorized vehicles is also what causes air pollution to increase.
2. Agricultural Activities
Activities and other human activities that damage and pollute the air are agricultural activities. In farming activities, we know that ammonia, which is always used, is very harmful to the air. But on the other hand, the gaseous substance in the form of ammonia is a very effective substance for repelling pests and insects. Ammonia is used by farmers, where it is the main ingredient in pesticides.
Pesticides used in agricultural activities can emit ammonia which is a hazardous substance for the environment, not only damaging and polluting the air but also polluting the water.
3. Piles of garbage in the TPA
Did you know, it turns out that piles of garbage that are left unattended can also pollute the air? Piles of garbage can produce very toxic gases, especially the piles of garbage that accumulate in landfills.
When the accumulated waste is stored and then buried, the waste will produce methane which is toxic. Another methane that is also toxic is the methane that comes out of greenhouses, where the gas is flammable and extremely dangerous.
Another very dangerous waste is the waste generated by electronic goods because electronic waste creates an unscientific and massive demolition process.
This demolition is like washing materials with chemicals, then cables that are highly flammable produce dangerous gases, and many others.
4. Mining Operations
Operations carried out in mining activities also create air pollution which is very concerning. The definition of mining activity itself is a process carried out in which minerals that are under the earth then unknowingly experience extraction due to heavy mining equipment.
In this process, the dust and chemicals produced can cause very deadly air pollution. Because this process can damage the health of workers or the health of the surrounding population who live in mining areas.
5. Indoor Pollution
Indoor air pollution can also occur, especially rooms that have products such as paintings. In painting we use chemicals such as paint, the substances that make up this paint are very dangerous and a contributor to air pollution. We ourselves know that paint has a very pungent odor and can irritate the human respiratory system.
One of the facts that we need to know is that many cases of death have occurred due to the impact of a combination of outdoor compounds and air pollution. Rights like this are caused by existing household substances that create pollution to the air.
Negative Impacts of Air Pollution
Air pollution certainly produces a lot of negative impacts on human life on this earth. The impact of this pollution does not only attack one sector, but attacks many sectors on earth and human life and the environment.
1. Impact of Air Pollution on Health
Air pollution certainly has a big impact on human health because it can cause lung disease (bronchitis) and also other respiratory organs.
Diseases that attack the respiratory system and all its systems are caused by dirty and harmful dust. Meanwhile, Carbon Monoxide can attack the health that is in hemoglobin . Hemoglobin itself is a tool used to transport oxygen. Hemoglobin contains iron which is present in red blood cells.
WHO as the world health organization states that 3.2 million of the cases of death on this earth are caused by air pollution. In other words, air pollution is very dangerous for human health.
We know that motorized vehicles in Indonesia are the main source of air pollution in big cities. Based on data released by the World Bank , during the period from 1995 to 2001, the growth in the number of motorized vehicles in Indonesia increased by 100%.
Without proper maintenance, starting with inadequate and poor quality fuel, lead levels, which are very dangerous, continue to rise. Not surprisingly, Jakarta which is the capital city of Indonesia has been designated as the city with the highest pollutant after the cities of Beijing, Mexico and New Delhi. Pollution like this if left unchecked will damage health.
2. Impact of air pollution on the economy
As a result of air pollution, Indonesia suffered a loss of 1.8 trillion Rupiah. This amount of funds is only used to overcome the damage caused by air pollution. Based on the results of a study conducted by the World Bank , this loss will continue to increase to 4.3 trillion.
3. The Impact of Air Pollution on Social Life
Air pollution can damage health. Therefore, everyone will reduce their activities to avoid air pollution. This will cause social activities to be limited and hampered.
4. The Impact of Air Pollution on Education
Apart from attacking the respiratory tract which is not good for health, air pollution can also affect the way students think. The minds of the students will be hampered when they have to be faced with a problem that they have to solve due to the air pollution that torments them.
5. Impact of Air Pollution on Agriculture
The agricultural sector suffers greatly from air pollution. Green land is reduced, photosynthesis in trees is disrupted, and much more.
Just like humans, plants are also susceptible to disease. Diseases that attack plants as a result of air pollution, such as chlorosis, and also necrosis. If this has happened, it can cause the air cycle to decrease and decrease, because the air is dirty and not good to breathe.
6. Acid Rain
Rain has a normal level of acidity if it is at an acidity level (pH) of 5.6. However, due to air pollution caused by SO2 and also NO2, this will create a reaction between rainwater and ultimately lower the pH of the rainwater itself.
As a result, the quality of the water on the surface can cause heavy metals to dissolve and seep through the soil. This water absorption has a negative impact on the quality of water in the ground and water that is on the surface.
7. The Greenhouse Effect
The presence of CO2, CFCs, methane, ozone, and N2O is due to the greenhouse effect that occurs in the troposphere. This dangerous gas eventually absorbs radiation from the sun which will later be reflected back to earth.
The greenhouse effect can cause global warming . Global warming causes the ice at the north and south poles to melt so that sea levels will rise. In addition, the life cycle of flora and fauna will also be threatened.
8. Damage to the Ozone Layer
The ozone layer is a layer that protects the earth. The ozone layer filters out radiation produced by the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Damage to the ozone layer caused by air pollution can cause cancer of the skin of humans and animals and damage the health of plants.
Book Recommendations About the Environment
Do you know how dangerous air pollution is? If you want to explore other environmental pollution issues, you can read the books on environmental pollution that we recommend below!
Environmental Health Ecology
Basic Environmental Health
How to prevent and also overcome air pollution
1. Take public transportation
Get used to using public transportation. By using public transportation we have helped nature to get better again because of the decrease in the number of motorized vehicles which cause air pollution.
2. Save Energy
Fossil fuels used for electric power can cause air pollution due to combustion activities. Therefore, turn off fans, lights and other electrical devices when not needed. By saving energy, we also help save the world from air pollution.
3. Use the 3R Concept
Use the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Never throw away items deemed useless without recycling them. Use it for other needs so that there is no accumulation of garbage.
4. Environmentally Friendly Energy
Use environmentally friendly energy sources, such as solar, wind or heat energy. With environmentally friendly energy, we have reduced air pollution on earth.
Author: Ai Siti Rahayu