Countries in Europe – Europe is one of the seven continents in the world. The area of the European continent covers about 10.18 million square kilometers and makes the European continent the second smallest continent after the Australian continent. The European continent stretches from the North Pole to the Mediterranean Sea in the south and from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Ural mountains in Russia in the east.
As additional information, the continent of Europe has 51 independent countries . Among the 51 countries there are countries across Europe and Asia continents such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey. Then what are the 51 countries in Europe? Check out the following list of countries in Europe!
List of Countries in Europe
Before knowing the list of countries in Europe, it’s better if Sinaumed’s knows better about the European continent first. Europe is geographically and geologically a peninsula or a peninsula or a subcontinent.
Separation of Europe as a continent due to cultural differences. The northern boundary is the Arctic Ocean, the western is the Atlantic Ocean and the south is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Meanwhile, the boundary in the east is still unclear, because the separation of the European continent was initiated due to cultural factors. However, the boundaries that are often used as boundaries between the continents of Europe and Asia are the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea.
Although the European continent is the second smallest continent after Australia, the European continent is in third place as the continent with the most population, below the continents of Asia and Africa with a total population of 742.5 million in 2013 or the same as one-eighth of the world’s population.
As already explained that the continent of Europe includes 51 independent countries. The following is a list of countries in Europe and their capitals.
List of European Countries Joining the European Union
The European Union, or better known as the EU abbreviation, is an intergovernmental organization as well as a supranational organization whose members are countries in the European continent. As of 31 January 2020, the European Union has 27 member states.
The Union of the European Union was founded on that name and came under the European Union Agreement better known as the Maastricht Agreement in 1992. However, there are many aspects of the European Union that arose before that year, through its previous organization i.e. back in the 1950s .
The European Union’s international organizations work through a mix of supranational as well as intergovernmental systems. In several fields, decisions are made by way of deliberation and consensus between member countries. Meanwhile, in other fields, these supranational organizations carry out their responsibilities without the need to seek approval from member countries.
The main organs of the EU organization are the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the Council of Europe, the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank. In addition to this important organ, the European Union also has a European Parliament whose members are directly elected by the citizens of its member countries.
Previously, the European Union had the name European Economic Community, then changed to the European Community and changed again until it became the name of the European Union. The change in the name of this organization is a sign that the organization of the European Union has also changed. From what used to be an organization of economic units to a political unit. This change is also marked by the increasing number of policies within the European Union.
European Union Country Cooperation Policy
By changing the name of this organization, the European Union also has a main policy that includes a number of different cooperation. Here’s an explanation.
- Make decisions in an autonomous way: the member states of the European Union have given the European Commission the power to make decisions in certain areas. Examples include competition law, control of state aid and liberalization.
- Harmonization: the laws of the member states of the European Union organization are harmonized through an EU legislative process which will involve the European Commission, the European Parliament and the EU Council. With this legal harmonization, EU law will increasingly be felt in the system of each member country.
- Cooperative: member states that meet as the Council of the European Union agree to work together and coordinate policies in their countries.
European Union External Policy
In addition to the EU policies described above, there are external policies set by EU organizations, along with their explanations.
- An external tariff with customs and equal position in international trade negotiations.
- Funding for programs in prospective member countries as well as other Eastern European countries and assistance to many developing countries with the Phare and Tacis programmes.
- Establish a single market for the European Energy Community through the Southeast European Energy Community Agreement.
Advantages of Being a Member of the European Union
With these policies, the 27 European countries that join the European Union will benefit as follows:
- Stable community membership, democracy, security and prosperity.
- Stimulus on GDP growth and more jobs as well as higher wages and pensions.
- The internal market will grow as well as more domestic demand.
- Have freedom of movement of labor, services, goods and capital.
Can access free to 450 million consumers.
What are the lists of European countries that are members of this European Union international organization? There are 27 countries that are members of which are as follows.
Austria, Belgium, Kriasia, Republic of Cyprus. Czech Republic. Denmark. Estonia. Finland. French. German. Greece. Hungary. Ireland. Italy. Latvia. Lithuania. Luxembourg. Malta. Dutch. Poland. Portugal. Romania. Slovakia. Slovenia. Spanish. Sweden.
Parts of Continental Europe
Sinaumed’s needs to know that the European continent is divided into several regions according to their location according to the four cardinal points, namely Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and Northern Europe. British Isles, often considered part of Western Europe. The following is an explanation of each part of the European continent.
According to the definition of the United Nations, countries that are in the Eastern European region are Belarus, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and the western part of the Russian Federation.
After World War II ended in 1945, Europe was then divided into Western Europe and Eastern Europe by the Iron Curtain. Eastern Europe then fell under the influence of the Soviet Union, separating it from western Europe.
When the Soviet Union collapsed around 1991, all of the Soviet Republics that were on the border with Eastern Europe declared their independence from Russia, then united with the rest of Europe.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, cooperation grew between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. The formation of the European Union or EU acts as the main European political and economic entity.
The UN defines parts of Western Europe in a similar way to when it defined the Cold War, but the UN excludes the UK, Scandinavian countries, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Italy. According to the UN, there are also countries in the Western European region, namely Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Switzerland.
Even so, there are several other opinions which suggest geographically that the region of Western Europe also includes Southern Europe, Northern Europe, Central Europe and the British Isles. Regions and countries included in Western Europe are Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Monaco, Gibraltar, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta , Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia.
Traditionally, countries in Northern Europe have included Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The countries above are often referred to as the Nordic countries.
There are also other regions and countries that are included in Northern Europe when viewed geographically, namely Aland Island. Channel Islands (Guernsey, Jersey, Sark). Estonia, Faroe Islands, Ireland. Isle of Man, Latvia, Lithuania, Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands, United Kingdom of Great Britain & North Island.
The last area of the European continent is Southern Europe which includes three large peninsulas that stretch from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Countries in Southern Europe are Albania, Andorra, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Gibraltar, Greece, Vatican, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, Portugal, San Marino. Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Macedonia.
That is an explanation of the list of countries in Europe along with their capitals and official languages. If Sinaumed’s is interested in knowing countries in other continents such as Asia or Australia, Sinaumed’s can find further information by reading books.
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