Get to know the 15 Soviet Union Fractal Countries and the Facts

Soviet Union Fractal State – Maybe some of the Sinaumed’s have heard the name of the country “Soviet Union”. Today, the Soviet Union has ceased to exist and has now become various splinter states. However, in the past, the Soviet Union was a country that had great power and was feared by many other countries.

In this article, we will discuss a brief history of the Soviet Union, along with the history of the 15 former Soviet Union states themselves. It is hoped that this article can add to Sinaumed’s’ knowledge, especially in the field of Social Sciences (IPS), such as history and geography.

A Brief History of the Soviet Union

The history of the Soviet Union, also known as the United Socialist Soviet Republic with the abbreviation USSR, began in 1917. Radical leftist revolutionaries overthrew Tsar Nicholas II whose family ruled the Russian state for centuries.

This coup also went through a civil war that lasted quite a long time, before the Red Army, representing the revolutionaries, conquered the White Army, which at that time was the defender of Tsar Nicholas II, also adhered to other ideologies such as capitalism and monarchy.

After the Soviet Union was established, they changed leadership regimes many times. Counting the Soviet Union had 8 leaders before finally split in 1991. Below, there is a list of leaders of the Soviet Union and their leadership period.

  1. Vladimir Lenin (1922-1924)
  2. Joseph Stalin (1924-1953)
  3. Georgy Malenkov (1953)
  4. Nikita Khrushchev (1953-1964)
  5. Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)
  6. Yuri Andropov(1982-1984)
  7. Konstantin Chernenko (1984-1985)
  8. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)

Apart from that, what historians will probably remember is the fact that the Soviet Union had involvement in various major wars in the past. They were involved in several wars such as World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.

During World War I, the Soviet Union, which at that time still had the name Russia, had a hand in helping Serbia defeat the Ottoman Empire, or now better known as Turkey. In World War II, the Soviet Union had a conflict with Japan regarding the problem of Japan’s expansion into the territory of the Soviet Union, becoming one of the foundations for this war and the reason why the Soviet Union allied with countries such as Britain and the United States to fight the Nazis from Germany and its allies. .

However, it could be argued that the Soviet Union’s greatest involvement in the war was when it fought the United States in the Cold War. This war involved a number of major countries in the world, and led to wars between countries and civil wars.

The Cold War occurred not long after the victory of the United States and the Soviet Union against the Nazis. This war was based on ideological differences as well as political concepts from a number of these major countries. The United States and its allies, also known as the western bloc, with its liberal views, and Russia and its allies, also known as the eastern bloc, with its communist views.

Beginning in 1947, the Cold War was long, going through various ups and downs of both blocs. There is a possibility that several small wars that occurred in the past were the work of the United States and the Soviet Union who defended one of the war camps.

In the end, there is no clear winner in this Cold War. However, observers say that the Western Bloc is the apparent winner of this war, because of the financial stability they have achieved, as well as the major influence on the pace of the world economy.

Meanwhile, the Soviet Union, failed to achieve what the United States managed to get during the Cold War. Their economic situation slowly worsened, until finally on December 31, 1991, the Soviet Union fell and split into 15 countries as we know it today.

The Soviet Union’s Fractal State

Maybe some of the Sinaumed’s have looked at the world map and found several small countries around Russia. It is very likely that these countries were ex-Soviet Union states, which still exist and survive today.

As mentioned above, there were 15 countries that were split from the Soviet Union. This time, we will briefly discuss this ex-Soviet Union country, starting from history, economic conditions, political understanding, and the life of the people of that country.

1. Armenian

Armenia is a country that is actually located on the Asian Continent, but is considered a European Continental country like Turkey. Armenia used to be part of the Ottoman Empire, before finally becoming a member of the former Soviet Union.

Until now, Armenia is included in the category of developing countries, which rely on the mining sector and export a lot of precious metals such as bronze, silver and gold. For the rest, the Armenian economy thrives on people working abroad.

As a ex-Soviet Union state, Armenia has good relations with Russia, the largest country of this splinter. Armenia imports a lot of oil and gas from Russia, and is under their protection if attacked by other countries. The country adopts a republican and democratic system of government, and the majority of its people are Catholic Christians.

2. Azerbaijan

Apart from Armenia, Azerbaijan is also a country located on the Asian Continent, but is considered a part of the countries on the European Continent. Azerbaijan also has a republican and democratic system of government like Armenia, and is still categorized as a developing country.

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Despite this, the majority of Azerbaijan’s population is Muslim. And unlike Armenia, Azerbaijan belongs to a country that speaks Turkish as its national language, even though they were formerly a former Soviet Union state.

The natural gas sector is the largest contributor to the Azerbaijani economy. About 80% of Azerbaijan’s exports are oil and natural gas, both in raw and finished form. Apart from the natural gas sector, Azerbaijan also relies heavily on the agricultural sector in their economic wheel.

3. Belarus

Belarus or Belarus is a former Soviet Union country which is categorized as a Slavic Nation because their main language, namely Russian, has Slavic roots. Apart from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine also fall into the category of Slavic Nations.

And among these three countries, Belarus has the smallest area. Like many other former Soviet Union countries, Belarus, which has a mixed government system between dictatorship and presidency, also falls into the category of developing countries.

The country also exports oil and gas, mostly in the form of refined oil and gas, making the sector a key sector in the Belarusian economy. They also export a lot of basic materials such as rubber, plastic, and formed metal.

4. Estonian

Located east of Russia, Estonia is another small country that was also a former Soviet Union state. However, in contrast to the majority of former Soviet Union countries, Estonia can be included in the category of developed countries because of its very good economic growth.

Estonia relies on various sectors to advance their economy. However, the industrial sector can be said to be a reliable sector in this country. Estonia exports many industrial materials and finished products to other countries, such as cars, electronic equipment, and building materials.

The system of government that Estonia has is a republic. The majority of the population of this country do not adhere to any religion, more commonly referred to as atheists. An interesting fact about Estonia is that the history of their country shows that they have the ancestry of the Balkan peoples, even though they were formerly part of the Soviet Union.

5. Georgia

Apart from being a state in the United States, the name “Georgia” is also the name of another former Soviet Union country. The country of Georgia is actually located as part of the Asian continent. However, like some of the former Soviet Union countries discussed above, this country is also considered a country on the European Continent.

Nearly 89% of Georgia’s population is Christian. This is because in the 4th century, Georgia has a history where this country was occupied by Alexander the Great, a ruler who at that time was a Christian who spread the teachings of that religion.

Even though it is included in the category of developing countries, Georgia’s economy can be said to be quite good. Georgia relies on a number of sectors as a source of their economic income. Even so, this country with a republican government system has 2 of the largest sectors in its economy, namely the manufacturing sector and the mining sector.

6. Kazakhstan

In contrast to several former Soviet Union countries which were previously located on the Asian continent but were considered part of countries on the European continent, Kazakhstan is a country on the Asian continent and is still considered part of the countries on this continent.

The religion adopted by the majority of the people of Kazakhstan is Islam. The country which holds the record for being the largest country without sea borders also has a republican system of government like many other former Soviet Union countries.

It should be noted that the Central Asian region has abundant oil resources. It is used by many countries of the region as their economic resource. The developing country of Kazakhstan is one of them, which relies on the oil and gas sector as a source of state revenue, exporting around 60% of oil and gas, both in raw and refined forms.

7. Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan is another country located on the Asian Continent, in the Central Asia region to be precise, and has quite a lot in common with the country of Kazakhstan. Among them are the majority of the population who embrace Islam, a country without sea borders, and a republican political system.

Kyrgyzstan is also included in the category of developing countries, just like Kazakhstan. Apart from that, the difference here is that Kyrgyzstan’s economic condition is still far below that of Kazakhstan, even though both are developing countries. Kyrgyzstan has even been included in the list of the poorest countries in Central Asia, in second place.

Kyrgyzstan relies heavily on the mining sector, which also happens to be heavily relied on by a number of other countries in the Central Asian region. The biggest export from this country is gold, followed by other precious metals such as silver and bronze.

8. Latvian

Back to Continental Europe, Latvia is another former Soviet Union country which also actually has a history as a Balkan country like Estonia which we have previously discussed. Like Estonia, Latvia is also classified as a developed country in Europe and the world.

There are various sectors that these republics rely on to support their economy. Latvia exports various kinds of goods to other countries, both finished goods and raw materials, such as wood, electronic equipment, medicines, and alcoholic beverages.

The large number of exports owned by Latvia has made them heavily involved in the economic system in Europe. They are also members of a number of economic organizations both in Europe and in the world. These two factors are the reasons behind Latvia’s high per capita income.

9. Lithuania

Apart from Estonia and Latvia, Lithuania is also a handful of other developed countries that were once part of the Soviet Union. All three have similarities in history, economic conditions, language, and area. This country has a republican system of government.

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Lithuania, whose population is predominantly Christian and Catholic, has a number of sectors that form the backbone of the country’s economy. In Europe, Lithuania is one of the countries that exports a lot of various kinds of needs from other countries such as electronics, medicines, oil or gasoline and car spare parts .

Nonetheless, the agricultural sector seems to still be the country’s main source of income. Similar to Latvia, Lithuania has also joined many trade organizations both in Europe and the world.

10. Moldova

Prior to joining the Soviet Union, Moldova was part of the Ottoman Empire. Having become independent in 1918 and joined by Romania, Moldova eventually merged into the Soviet Union in 1924 and became part of the country before they broke up.

Moldova is one of the poorest countries in Europe. Their per capita income is not as high as other European countries. In fact, this country that has a republican government system is also one of the poorest former Soviet Union countries.

The agricultural sector is the main sector that supports the Moldovan economy. Food items such as wheat, corn, sunflower seeds, as well as food and beverage products such as wine, vegetable oil and nuts, are the most exported products from Moldova.

11. Russia

This country is the largest ex-Soviet Union country and has the strongest economy when compared to other former Soviet Union countries. Naturally, considering that Russia became the country that founded the Soviet Union, and invited a number of other fractional countries to join it.

Russia itself is a member of the G7 which consists of countries with the strongest economies in the world. This country with a republican government system but still has authority like a dictator also relies on various sectors to support their economy.

Due to the area of ​​the country which is even the largest in the world, Russia has natural and human resources to support their economy. The mining sector, the agricultural sector, the oil and gas sector, and even the tourism sector, support the country’s economy.

12. Tajikistan

Back to the ex-Soviet Union countries in the Central Asian region, there is Tajikistan, which is also included in the category of developing countries. Like Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan which we previously discussed above, the majority of the population of these countries are Muslims.

Tajikistan also exports a lot of precious metals to other countries. Several types of precious metals that they export include gold, bronze, and aluminum, and minerals such as zinc. Tajikistan is also famous for its agricultural endeavors, and has several food sources such as fruits and vegetables.

However, this does not cover the fact that Tajikistan is one of the poorest countries in the Central Asia region and Asia as a whole. Their economic growth and development is still far behind compared to other countries in a similar region.

13. Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a former Soviet Union country located in the Central Asian region which we previously discussed in this article. Some of the Sinaumed’s might have guessed that Turkmenistan has a lot in common with other former Soviet Union countries in the same region.

Turkmenistan is also included in the category of developing countries, just like Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Like the last 2 countries, Turkmenistan’s economic situation is unfortunately considered the lowest and can be said to be not very good.

Turkmenistan relies on the oil and natural gas sector in its economic rotation. This country with a republican government system was once labeled as the country with the worst Human Rights (HAM) compared to other countries. This is because they do not treat minorities, the press, and freedom of religion properly.

14. Ukraine

Ukraine is the largest ex-Soviet country after Russia. Even though they are both former Soviet Union countries and have a number of similarities, Ukraine and Russia have a conflict which, until the time this article was written, has not been resolved, and they have even gone to war with each other.

One thing that this country has in common with a republican system of government is that it has more natural and human resources compared to a number of other former Soviet Union countries, making Ukraine classified as a developed country.

Some of the sectors that Ukraine relies on to support their economy are the natural gas sector and the agricultural sector. This last sector is considered the best sector belonging to Ukraine, because they export a lot of various agricultural products such as corn, wheat and barley.

15. Uzbekistan

The last ex-Soviet Union state that we discuss in this article is again located in the Central Asian region. However, unlike the majority of other countries that were part of the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan’s economy is much better off.

Uzbekistan relies on the oil sector, due to its location in Central Asia which is rich in petroleum. They are also one of the largest cotton exporters in Asia. Therefore, the economy of this country with a majority Muslim population continues to grow every year.

Even so, the human rights condition in Uzbekistan is also not good enough, like Turkmenistan which we discussed earlier. However, Uzbekistan is slowly trying to improve their human rights conditions and continues to improve so that the people’s human rights needs can be met.

Related Book Recommendations

That is an article discussing the ex-Soviet Union countries. Sinaumed’s who are interested in increasing their knowledge on this topic can read some of our recommended books, namely the book “Migration as an Impact of Political and Economic Changes in the Former Soviet Union Areas”, the book “World Figures Series 64: Mikhail Gorbachev (Last President of the Soviet Union)” , and the book “The Movement of Islam in Russia”.

1. Migration as an Impact of Political and Economic Changes in the Former Soviet Union Areas

2. World Figures Series 64: Mikhail Gorbachev (Last President of the Soviet Union)

3. Movement of Islam in Russia

Author: M. Adrianto S.