Figures from the Battle of Ambarawa – Hello, Sinaumed’s friends , did you know?
The Battle of Ambarawa took place on November 20, 1945 and ended on December 15, 1945. The
battle took place between the TKR troops and the people of Indonesia against the British
The incident occurred after the Magelang Incident after the Indian 23rd Division Artillery Brigade landed
in Semarang on 20 October 1945. They had come to deal with the prisoners of war. The Allies
promised not to disturb the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia. The Indonesian side
allowed them to enter the territory of the Republic of Indonesia to solve the problem of Dutch prisoners of
war in the Magelang and Ambarawa prisons
After obtaining approval from the Governor of Central Java, Mr. Wongsonegoro carried out his mission with a
record of not disturbing the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia, the Allied troops then advanced to
Magelang and Ambarawa.
The arrival of allied British troops, however, was followed by NICA, which then armed the former prisoners.
On October 26, 1945, an incident occurred in the city of Magelang which turned into a battle
between the TKR troops and the combined forces of the British and NICA allies. The incident
stopped after President Soekarno and Brigadier General Bethell arrived in Magelang on 2 November
However, the people fought tooth and nail in the Battle of Ambarawa on November 20, 1945. There were a number of
figures involved in the Battle of Ambarawa who played an important role against the Dutch at that time to
List of Ambarawa Fighting Figures
Following are some profiles of figures involved in the Battle of Ambarawa who were willing to sacrifice in order
to defend Indonesia’s independence, which sinaumedia has summarized:
1. Colonel Soedirman
Colonel Soedirman, his real name is Raden Soedirman, was born on January 24, 1916 in Purbalingga, Central Java
Colonel Soedirman’s parents were Mr. Karsid Kartawiraji, a sugar factory worker from Kalibagor, Banyumas,
and Mrs. Siyem was a descendant of the Rembang District Head. He has an older brother, Muhammad
Samingan. His wife is Alifah and he has 7 children.
Colonel Soedirman did not live with his parents, he was raised by his uncle Raden Cokrosunaryo, a
sub-district head in Rembang Purbalingga, so he could lead a more dignified and stable life. At
that time Raden Cokrosunaryo did not have children, so he adopted Colonel Soedirman as his son.
Together with his uncle, since childhood, the general was highly educated.
Soedirman in his youth was known as a pious child, diligent in research and diligent in understanding Raden
Muhammad’s Islam. He was later nicknamed Hajj because of his religious knowledge and often
preached to Muslims so far.
After his uncle’s death, the General was devastated by the loss of his adoptive parents. He
also had to go through very bad economic problems, fortunately he was still allowed to study at Wirotomo
Thanks to his intelligence, he survives and continues to perfect his skills. General Sudirman
finally started co-founding an Islamic organization when he was still a teenager, Hizbul Wathan from
Muhammadiyah. Because of his dedication at an early age, Colonel Soedirman finally won the
trust to lead the organization in the Cilacap branch.
Colonel Soedirman’s leadership spirit was evident from a young age, so that the people were very ashamed
and respected this general. He also continued his education at Kweekschool
(a special school for teacher candidates) although this was ultimately not resolved due to financial
problems. General Sudirman returned to Cilacap and taught Muhammadiyah elementary school
Colonel Soedirman, the first and youngest Indonesian commander and general to participate in the Battle of
Ambarawa. Colonel Sudirman acted as commander of the Ambarawa war and finally won the fierce
war using the supit urang tactic.
At that time, the supit urang tactic was only used in very limited circumstances. However,
Sudirman’s courage, tenacity, and intelligence took advantage of this tactic.
Simply put, supit urang is a technique of attacking your opponent from both sides so as to make your
opponent pinned down. This attack technique managed to cut off communication between foreign
militaries, damaging the defense system. As a result, the Allies were completely
In the battle with the Allies in Ambarawa, Colonel Soedirman bravely led his troops and never gave up.
The victory thanks to this precise strategy was highly appreciated by the Indonesian military.
President Soekarno immediately gave him the rank of Commander of the Army.
2. Lieutenant Colonel Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto is one of the Indonesian military fighters in the struggle for independence. He
was born on October 10, 1907 in Banyumas, Central Java, the first son of Sajid Boedijoewono.
In leading the soldiers under him, Gatot Subroto always prioritizes the soldiers’ families.
Likewise with the condition of the people who are within its reach, the most important thing is the
people’s support for those who are fighting.
So it was only natural that a figure of the caliber of Gatot Soebroto could threaten Japan while occupying
Indonesia. People loved his attitude in keeping to the truth. It’s no joke, when a
Japanese soldier behaves arbitrarily towards the people, he immediately intervenes to defend the people.
The military experience he gained at the KNIL and PETA made him a prominent figure in the
Indonesian military center.
History records that his participation as a tactician in the Battle of Ambarawa on October 20, 1945 was a
tremendous success. The combat troops succeeded in expelling the Allies from the famous
Ambarawa palagan with the ” claw us” strategy with Colonel Soedirman (later to become Commander
Lieutenant Colonel Gatot Soebroto is one of the important figures in the Battle of Ambarawa.
The role of Lieutenant Colonel Gatot Soebroto as a participant in the Battle of Ambarawa was as the
main tactician. He accompanied Colonel Soedirman to fight foreign troops. The
selection of Lieutenant Colonel Gatot Soebroto as part of the Battle of Ambarawa was made after the
successful formation of the 5th Division in Purwokerto.
This division was led by Colonel Sudirman. He is also credited with being able to obtain
weapons from the Japanese army through a negotiation. The number of weapons was so great that
they were sent to BKR in West Java. During the Battle of Ambarawa, Lieutenant Colonel Gatot
Soebroto was appointed Commander of the Ambarawa Front.
3. Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman was born in Pontianak on July 12 1913. He attended Bojonegoro Vocational High
School. Isdiman’s childhood was spent in Cianjur. Ambarawa is a legacy fought for
by Isdiman and his troop of soldiers. He played an important role in the Ambarawa War.
He was Colonel Soedirman’s confidant to set the operational strategy in Ambarawa. He
commanded soldiers in the Ambarawa War against the Allies.
Indonesian troops under Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman tried to liberate two villages that the Allies wanted to
control. However, Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman was seriously injured in an air attack and was
taken to Magelang, but Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman died on the way to Magelang, but Lieutenant Colonel
Isdiman died on the way to Magelang. M. Sarbini immediately gave chase to them.
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman is an officer of the People’s Security Army (TKR) and the commander of the
Banyumas TKR regiment. His skills made him a soldier that General Soedirman relied on.
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman’s role in the Battle of Ambarawa was as a tactician or strategist.
General Soedirman ordered his troops to fight in Ambarawa to withdraw the coalition from the area
from Indonesia. Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman fought bravely, led his troops and determined his
strategy. Even in a difficult or uncertain situation, he is fearless.
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman was among those killed in Allied air raids during the Battle of Ambarawa.
While on duty, his base is attacked by three Allied Mustangs and two Dakotas.
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman’s leg was hit by an aircraft machine gun. He died en route
to a nearby hospital for treatment.
Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman is remembered as the living soul of the rebels, pumping the fighting blood of
the young guerrillas. Currently, Isdiman’s name is plastered on a street in Purwokerto, namely
Jalan Overste Isdiman or commonly known as Jalan Ovis.
4. Colonel GPH Djatikusumo
GPH Djatikusumo started his military career undergoing military training during the Dutch era, namely as a
Reserve Officer of the Opleiding Corps (CORO) but on March 3, 1942 Djatikoesoemo was still a CORO cadet,
assigned to fight against the Japanese Army in Ciater , Subang, West Java until March 8 1942 because on that day
the Dutch colonial government in the East Indies had begun to surrender unconditionally to the Japanese troops
at the air base from Kalijati.
After the Dutch surrendered, Djatikoesoemo also underwent military training called Jawa Boei Kanbu Giyugun
Resentai, where the education was carried out by the Japanese in Bogor, West Java, with the aim of training
officers for the Future Defense of the Indonesian National Army (PETA) to serve as volunteer commandos for
island defense forces Java. In facing the threat of Allied invasion after graduating from this
course, Djatikoesoemo also held the rank of Shodancho (Captain) and was assigned to Daidan (Battalion) I
PETA Surakarta Army.
GPH Djatikusumo was a key figure in the Battle of Ambarawa and served as commander of the IV Division.
The division’s primary task is to track down and encircle foreign troops. During the
fierce battle in Ambarawa, Colonel GPH Jati Kusumo showed extraordinary leadership. Leadership
is what keeps troops moving in the right direction. GPH Djatikusumo held many important
positions throughout his life. For example, the Chairman of BKR Surakarta, the Commander of the
TRI IV Division, the Chief of Staff of the Army, Ministers and Ambassadors.
5. Captain Surono Reksodimedjo
General TNI (Purn) Soerono Reksodimedjo (6 September 1923 – 3 August 2010) served as Army Chief of Staff
from April 1973 to May 1974 and Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces (Wapanab). He also served
as the Coordinating Minister for People’s Welfare of the Republic of Indonesia and the Coordinating Minister
for Political and Security Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia during the reign of President
At the time of the Palagan Ambarawa incident, he served as a captain under the command of the military unit
Lieutenant Colonel Gatot Subroto. And during his tenure as Governor of the NMA in 1965, Soerono
helped the Commander of the Kodam VII/Diponegoro at that time, Brigadier General Soerjo Soempeno defeat the
G30S/PKI action in Central Java, especially within the Diponegoro Regional Military Command itself, after
announcing the establishment of the Diponegoro Regional Military Command. The Central Java
Regional Revolutionary Council through RRI Semarang station at around 13.00 WIB, with Colonel Inf.
Intelligence Assistant Sahirman 1 Kodam VII/Diponegoro as President.
6. Lieutenant Colonel Sarbini Martodihardjo
General TNI (posthumously) Mas Sarbini Martodihardjo (10 June 1914 – 21 August 1977) was a retired general
who was born in Indrosari Village, Buluspesantren District, Kebumen, Central Java and had served on the
battlefield many times in both the army and the army. . in the government of the
Republic of Indonesia.
During the struggle, especially on October 20 1945, he who at that time held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel led
troops from the Kedu Center Regiment, the People’s Security Army to attack and cover the siege of Allied troops
and NICA in Jambu Village, Ambarawa known as the Palagan Ambarawa Incident.
During Bung Karno’s reign, Major General TNI M. Sarbini served as Minister of Defense in the Dwikora II cabinet
in 1966, which was later replaced by Lieutenant General Suharto.
While still alive, Lieutenant General TNI H. Mr. Sarbini was widely known as the Father of Indonesian
Veterans and his name was immortalized as the name of the Veterans Building or Balai Sarbini which is
located in the Semanggi area of Central Jakarta. To commemorate his services, in Kebumen,
where he was born, a SMK Jenderal M. Sarbini was also established.
The course of the Battle of Ambarawa
On October 20, 1945, Allied troops under Brigadier General Bethell landed in Semarang with the aim of
clearing prisoners of war and Japanese soldiers in Central Java. The appearance of this ally
was accompanied by NICA.
The first arrival was greeted by the Governor of Central Java Mr. Wongsonegoro who agreed to provide food and
other necessities for the smooth implementation of the Allied mission, when in fact the Allies promised not to
interfere with the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia.
However, when the Allied forces and NICA went to Magelang and Ambarawa to free the prisoners from the Dutch
troops, instead of arming the prisoners, which angered the Indonesian side. Armed incidents
finally started in the town of Magelang, until the fighting broke out.
It was precisely in Magelang that the Allied troops began to act as leaders who tried to disarm the
People’s Security Army and sow chaos. TKR or People’s Security Army Regiment I Kedu led by
Lieutenant Colonel. Pak Sarbini also responded to this action by surrounding the Allied troops
from various directions.
In the end they were saved from destruction through the direct intervention of President Soekarno who
calmed the atmosphere. The Allied troops then secretly left the city of Magelang and headed for
After this incident, the Middle Kedu Regiment came under the command of Lieutenant Colonel. M.
Sarbini is busy with various jobs for them. The Allied retreat which had previously been
organized in the village of Jambu was intercepted by forces from the Young Forces led by Oni Sastrodihardjo,
also reinforced by troops from Surakarta, Suruh and Ambarawa.
The Allied Forces again confronted Battalion I Soerjosoemarno at Ngipik. During this retreat,
the Allied forces tried to seize two villages around Ambarawa.
Indonesian soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Sudirman tried to liberate these two villages
but ended up dying first. Since the death of Lt. Cabbage. Isdiman,
Commander of the Fifth Division in Banyumas, Col. Sudirman felt he had lost one of his best
officers and immediately took to the field to lead the battle. the presence of Col.
Sudirman also breathed new life into the Republic of Indonesia army.
The coordination organized by the branch command to encircle the enemy was tightened. The
tactics used include simultaneous surprise attacks in all areas. Reinforcements continued to
arrive from Magelang, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Salatiga, Purwokerto and others.
Right on November 23, 1945, as the sun began to rise, the tragedy of the shooting of the last surviving
Allied troops began at the Dutch Kerkhof and the church complex on Jl Street. Margo Agoeng.
The Indonesian army currently consists of Yon. Pastor Adrongi, Yon.
Soegeng and Yon. Suharto.
The Allied forces also surrendered the Japanese POWs with reinforcements from their tanks, then infiltrated the
Indonesian positions from the rear, so that the Indonesians then advanced on Bedono.
End of Battle
After another battle on a smaller but continuous scale, four days later on the 15th to be exact, the attack
was declared over. The Indonesian army, with the help of the people, regained control of the
city of Ambarawa. Furthermore, the Allies admitted defeat and withdrew to the city of
One of the main keys to this victory is having a strong sense of solidarity. Even when faced
with allied troops armed with various modern and sophisticated weapons, the freedom fighters were
Colonel Soedirman was then promoted to Major General before the start of the Battle of Ambarawa. He
explained the importance of defeating the Allies in Ambarawa in the shortest possible time. One
of the reasons was that the military had big plans to make the city their main power base with the aim of
controlling the territory of the Central Java province. Through popular slogans, the poor,
corrupted or spoiled simply grow and disappear.
You can use the Smart Book on Knowing Indonesian Heroes as a reference to learn many
things about the nation’s heroes. This book is presented as an effort to remember their great
services from various important events in the history of the Indonesian nation.
In addition, this book is also intended so that the nation’s generation can emulate the noble qualities of
heroes and their fighting spirit. The struggle of the heroes to finally be able to win
independence is over, now is the time for the younger generation to fight for independence.
There are many meanings and lessons from the history of this nation and it is fitting for us to
protect the sovereignty of the beloved Republic of Indonesia.