Getting to Know the Climate of Continental Europe, From Natural Conditions, Population to Flora-Fauna

For Sinaumed’s who have vacation plans to countries on the European continent. It’s good, to get to know the climate of Continental Europe first. By knowing the climate on the blue continent, you can certainly maximize your time when visiting there.

Well, this article will discuss the climate of the European Continent and various other interesting things. For more details, let’s see the review below!

Overview of Continental Europe

Europe is a continent consisting of the Eurasian peninsula to the west and occupies almost one-fifth of the world’s total land area. Europe itself can be said to be the second smallest continent in the world, with an area of ​​around 10,180,000 square kilometers. The European region is surrounded by many bays, fjords and seas. However, the coastline of this continent is irregular with a length of about 24,000 miles or the equivalent of 38,000 km.

Astronomically, the European Continent is located between 9º West Longitude (BB) – 60º East Longitude (BT) and 35º North Latitude (N) – 80º North Latitude (N). Meanwhile, when viewed in terms of geographical location, the boundaries of the European Continent, namely the Arctic Ocean in the north, the Asian Continent in the east, the Mediterranean Sea or Mediterranean Sea in the south, and the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

In addition, there are two large peninsulas that belong to the European Continent, including the European mainland and the Scandinavian region. Three other smaller peninsulas, namely Iberia, Italy and the Balkans are located in the south and directly face the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea is the boundary between the continent of Europe and Africa.

Regarding regional division, the European continent is divided into four regions, namely Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and Northern Europe. It’s just that the territorial divisions of the adult European continent are starting to fade. This is due to ties or cooperation economically and politically through the European Union agreement, or commonly known as the European Union.

Based on data quoted from Worldometers, there are 44 countries on the European Continent. A total of 10 countries are in the Eastern European region. Furthermore, there are 10 countries in Northern Europe. In addition, there are 15 countries in Southern Europe and 9 countries in Western Europe.

European Continental Climate

The European continent is basically famous for its winter. This is because this continent is outside the tropics so it tends to have subtropical and temperate climates. As a result, countries on the European continent have four seasons, namely spring, summer, autumn and winter. The following are climate characteristics on the European Continent, namely:

1. Climate of the Western European Continent

The west coast of Continental Europe has a climate that is influenced by the sea climate of the Atlantic ocean. The warm currents that often flow from the Atlantic Ocean keep the coastal areas in the area from freezing. This means that this area has moderate temperatures throughout the year, a low annual temperature range, and high rainfall. In addition, rainfall in Western Europe is quite abundant and the summer air is relatively cool.

Some countries in Western Europe that experience an oceanic climate are the United Kingdom (including England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), Ireland, France, the Netherlands and Belgium.

2. Central European Continental Climate

The central part of Continental Europe is a transition between a wet maritime climate and a dry continental climate. In addition, the Central European and Eastern European regions also have an eclectic grouping of climate systems, namely subarctic, humid continental, cold semi-arid, and subarctic climates continuing from Scandinavia to western Russia.

Further, there is a humid continental climate, covering most of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland and Moldova, as well as parts of Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Slovenia.

3. Climate of the Southern European Continent

The southern part of the European Continent has a warmer climate due to the influence of the Mediterranean sea climate and winds from hot desert areas. This means that this area also has cool, wet winters and relatively dry summers. In addition, the sky conditions throughout the year are also bright. Meanwhile, rainfall in Southern Europe is strongly influenced by maritime air masses or sea climate.

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4. Climate of the North European Continent

The northern part of the European Continent has a colder climate because it is influenced by the polar climate. As a result, the region has long winters and short summers. This type of climate is usually found in Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Alps, and several other highlands.

Conditions on the Continent of Europe 

Please note, the natural conditions on the European Continent have their own characteristics. There are 4 categories of landscapes in Continental Europe. Well, here is an explanation of the four natural landscapes on the European Continent, namely:

1. Old Mountains in the north 

The continent of Europe has one of the most extensive mountain ranges in the world, those mountains are the old Mountains located in the regions of Norway, the Scottish highlands, and the northwestern highlands of Ireland.

2. Russian lowlands

Besides having mountainous areas, the European Continent also has a very famous lowland landscape located in Russia. This lowland area contains old metamorphose rocks. This type of rock used to sink to the bottom of the sea and at one time reappeared.

3. Great European Lowland 

After the Russian lowlands, the European continent still has a lowland that is between the old mountains in the north and the young mountains of the Alpine system. Most of this area has an altitude of less than 500 meters above sea level.

This is what makes two-thirds of the continent of Europe is lowland. This lowland stretches from western Europe to eastern Europe and is surrounded by the Ural Mountains. In addition, this plain is also in the middle of the Caspian Sea Lake, the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea, the Alps, and the Eastern Scandinavian region.

4. Young fold mountains in the South 

Young fold mountains are the result of activity that occurred during the tertiary period in parts of Southern Europe. This mountain range has the shape of a short arc that stretches from southwest to northeast.

This folding mountain path on the European Continent is composed of the Alps, Ural Mountains, and the Caucasus mountains. These three mountain ranges became known as part of the Circum Mediterranean Mountains system.

Population Composition of the European Continent

The population of the European Continent is basically not evenly distributed. This is because the distribution of the population of the European Continent is influenced by natural conditions and economic progress. The most densely populated Continental Europe tends to be in lowland areas around industrial centers.

Meanwhile, the low population density of the European Continent is mostly in high mountain areas, namely the Meseta mountains in Spain, the Alps, Alpenia, and so on. This also applies to other mountains that have infertile conditions, such as the limestone areas in Yugoslavia, Midi in France, Arctic Russia, Pripet Swamp, and the saline steppes north of the Caspian Sea.

According to data taken in 2019, the population of the European continent is around 748,150,542 people. Of all the countries on the European continent, the countries with the most population are in Russia, Germany, England, France and Italy.

The population of the European Continent has a very diverse composition. Nonetheless, most of the inhabitants of this continent are descended from the Caucasoid nation which is divided into several ethnic groups. According to race and physical characteristics, the European population can be divided into 5 ethnic groups. The following is an explanation of the 5 ethnic groups of the inhabitants of the European Continent, namely:

1. The Nordics

The inhabitants of Western Europe to Northern Europe are descended from the Nordics. The Nordics themselves are a people who once inhabited the area now known as Norway, England, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium and northern Germany. This nation has physical characteristics such as blond hair, blue eyes, narrow face, and long skull.

2. The Alps 

Apart from the Nordics, the European Continent is also famous for the Alps. The Alps are a people who mostly live in Central and Southern Europe, from France, Switzerland, Poland, Austria and southern Germany. The Alps have the following physical characteristics, black hair, black eyes, wide skull, not too tall.

3. The Mediterranean nation

Furthermore, there are Mediterranean peoples who mostly live in the Southern European region, such as Greeks, Italians, Portuguese and Spaniards. The Mediterranean people themselves have physical characteristics, namely black hair, black eyes, bodies and skulls resembling the Nordic people.

4. Slavic peoples 

Next, there are the Slavic peoples who have the same physical characteristics as the Alps. These Slavic peoples settled in Eastern Europe, namely Croatia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Czech, Russia, Ukraine and Slovakia.

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5. The Dinaric Nation

The last nation on the European continent is the Dinaric people. The Dinars usually live in the territory of Romania. This nation has physical characteristics almost like other nations, it’s just that it has dark hair.

Apart from the five ethnic groups above, many immigrants from Africa, the Middle East and even Asia have left the European region today. Increasingly here, European society has various ethnic groups.

Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the European Continent adhere to very diverse religions. However, the religion with the largest number of adherents is Roman Catholicism. Then, there are Protestant Christians and Orthodox Christians. The population of the Jewish religion is also quite a lot in Europe. In addition, adherents of Islam also live in many European countries, especially the Balkans.

European history

Based on chronological records, Europe’s important events began in prehistoric times with the emergence of Homo sapiens (early humans). The early inhabitants of the Paleolithic Age were trying to survive. They are grouped into groups to gather plants and hunt wild animals.

Around 9000 years ago, European societies in the Neolithic Age had already begun to practice cultivating the land, producing crops and raising livestock. During this time too, many people began to use stone tools and people began to live in small groups, or villages.

As humans continued to travel from east to west across Eurasia (a combination of Asia and Europe), people began to become acquainted with new tools and methods. Starting from here, civilization began to develop along with the discovery of metal axes and arrowheads.

Furthermore, in the 8th century BC, Greece emerged from the Dark Ages. Classical Greek culture also exerted a strong enough influence on the Roman empire. This then made Greece the basis for various modern Western cultures until now, starting from the development of modern architecture, language, law and religion.

After the collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire (285-1450) it survived as the Byzantine Empire. Meanwhile, a series of tribes and tribal alliances in Western Europe moved into positions of power in the former Roman Empire.

In southeastern Europe, the Empire ruled by the Franks arose. The Franks then evolved into the Kingdom of France with parts of it turning into the Holy Roman Empire. This Frankish empire can be said to be the forerunner of Germany.

Elsewhere, the Anglo-Saxons were crossing the English Channel into southern England. He founded a series of kingdoms that became the Kingdom of England in AD 927. About 100 years later, the Kingdoms of Poland and Hungary would also form.

Around the end of the 8th century to the mid-13th century, came the heyday of the Vikings in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. With no reason for territorial control, the Scandinavian (Norse) Vikings aggressively explored Europe with the aim of trading. Besides tiu, the Vikings also arrived in Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, and Anatolia, aka Turkey.

Entering the 15th century, many great powers emerged from the European Continent. Starting from England, France, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain each played a dominant role in global affairs, especially after the start of colonialism.

The European colonial period, from the 1500s to the 1900s, was the period when European powers were establishing many colonies on the Asian continent, the African continent, and the Americas. In addition, during the 16th and 20th centuries, several European countries controlled North and South America, Africa, Oceania, and large parts of Asia.

At a time when almost everyone yearned for freedom around the world, the European colonial era was coming to an end. In particular, the British Empire did not become the first global monarch. On the other hand, World War I and II also damaged the European Continent.

The European situation slowly began to improve after the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. This moment was then followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. From here, European cultures and factions were soon integrated, forming the European Council which was the forerunner of the European Union.

In the present era, Continental Europe is becoming one of the major economic and political power centers. People in Europe are also known as innovative, optimistic, and resilient individuals who change the world.

Thus the discussion about the climate of the European Continent to its history. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful and can add to your insight. If you want to find books about Europe, then you can get them at .

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Author: Umm