Definition of Infaq: Types, and Differences of Infaq with Charity, Zakat, and Waqf

Infaq is – There are various practices in Islam that are also closely related to giving money or other property. One of them is infaq. Then what is meant by infaq. Islam has the concept that the universe and all its contents belong to Allah SWT, including those that are the property of humans. That is, for every property owned by a person, there are other people’s rights in it as well.

The basis of the law of infaq itself has been explained in the Qur’an in Surat Adz-Dzariyat in verse 19 which states: “And in every property of theirs there is also the right of the poor who ask and the poor who do not get a share.” In addition, Surat Al Baqarah verse 245 also provides guidance for every Muslim to do infaq.

The meaning of the word itself reads: “Whoever wants to give a loan to God, a good loan (that is to spend his wealth in the way of God), then God will then multiply the payment to him by multiplying it as well. And God will narrow and widen (provision) and to Him you will then be returned.”

Meaning of Infaq

Infaq is actually taken from the word anfaqa-yunfiqu which means to finance or spend. Meanwhile, according to KBBI or the Big Indonesian Dictionary, infaq is an effort to release property which includes non-zakat and zakat.

In contrast to Sharia terminology, infaq is to withdraw part of the property, earnings or income owned for an interest that is then ordered in an Islamic teaching.

So, infaq can also be defined as an effort to carry out the command of Allah SWT by spending wealth with the purpose of doing good. Thus, infaq is actually different from charity.

Because, infaq does not recognize nisab and the amount of property determined based on the law. The gift of this property also does not have to be given to a certain mustahik, but can also be given to anyone known or unknown.

For example, infaq can be given to the elderly, the indigent, relatives, orphans, or even to those who are on a journey. So, giving property is a voluntary activity.

Types of Infaq and Examples

Mandatory Infaq

Being one of the types of Infaq in Islam, namely Mandatory Infaq as an infaq that must be issued by someone. If this infak is not released by a person, then he will then earn dosa. Therefore, if you have an obligation to spend, then do it.

Because, as Muslims who are still given the opportunity to breathe fresh air every day, you should do what you should, below are some examples of obligatory infaq.

Paying Dowry

One example of obligatory infaq is paying dowry. Dowry is property that must be handed over by a husband to his wife for the marriage contract. However, it should be understood that there is no provision related to the minimum dowry.

Dowry is actually not the main purpose of a marriage and its nominal standardization must also be in accordance with the conditions of each party. For information, there is a recommended dowry which is no less than 10 dirhams and no more than 500 dirhams. One dirham is equivalent to 2,975 grams of silver.

Atonement

Kafarat is a fine that must be paid by someone for violating the law or the provisions of Allah SWT. The amount of atonement itself depends on the type of offense a person has committed.

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Then, the recipient of this infak can also mean anyone. It can even be from family or other relatives who are in need. It is highly recommended to have an obligation like this, so you should immediately pay it.

Providing for the Family

Another example of the type of obligatory infak is providing sustenance to the family. For example, a husband who is obligated to provide for his wife and family. This is an obligation from the husband to the wife. Later there will also be a greater reward for him.

Infaq Sunnah

In addition to mandatory infaq, in Islam there is also sunnah infaq. This infak itself is an infak that is done with the purpose of giving charity in the way of Allah SWT. Therefore, charity in the form of wealth can then be said to be infaq sunnah.

Anyone who has enough wealth can then do infaq sunnah. So, it can be said that there are actually so many practices that can be done to be able to reap as many rewards as possible. Infak sunnah itself consists of two types, namely:

Infak Jihad

Infak jihad as an infak given to someone or a group of people who want to fight in the path of Allah SWT. For example, when you give part of your property to those who are fighting for Palestine.

This fact will certainly provide many benefits. Not only from the recipient’s side, but also from the giver’s side. In addition, it can also ease the burden of the recipient, this infak can also give a great reward to the giver of the infak.

Infak to Help Others

Infak will help others, of course, aiming to then lighten the burden of others. Similar to infaq jihad, this infaq can then be given to anyone in need.

Not only covering the needs of jihad, the giver of infaq can also give his wealth to the people around him. Make sure all these things are done because and for Allah SWT. Don’t get caught up in wanting to be admired by many people when spending money.

Infak Mubah

The next type of infaq is mubah infaq. This type of infaq as an infaq is freely done but doing it will not make someone get a reward. Then, for those who do not do it, they will not reap sins. So, this infak is actually done for things that have the law of mubah.

For example, when a person gives his property for farming, trading or farming. This kind of thing is certainly not a mandatory thing to do. However, it is legal for someone to do it. There is no prohibition for those who want to do mubah infaq.

In addition to not getting a reward for those who do it, there will also be no sin for those who don’t do it. Everything is done with the intention of Allah SWT. Because, if it wasn’t because of Allah SWT, of course this law of infaq would later change into illegal infaq. Really this is the type of infak that should be avoided.

Infak Haram

Infak haram are types of infak that are strictly prohibited by Islamic teachings. Therefore do not do this infak. Illegal spending is spending in the form of property to other people insincerely or not for the sake of Allah SWT.

Anyone who then spends with the intention of only wanting to be praised or get a reward from others, then the law is unlawful. Don’t do things like this. The act of illegal infaq will also reflect the riya behavior of those who do it.

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This behavior is truly cursed by Allah SWT and is also categorized as a hypocrite. There is even a reward given in the afterlife that will be very painful. The reward that should be reaped because of infak will actually be eliminated because of this riya behavior.

Indeed, those who commit illegal spending will suffer greatly not only in the afterlife but also in this world. May all Muslims then be able to avoid things like this well. The type of endowment itself has various types, ranging from obligatory endowment, sunnah, permitted endowment, and haram.

The difference between Infaq, Sadaqah, Zakat, and Waqf

To understand the difference between infaq, almsgiving, zakat, and waqf, pay attention to each definition and the following examples of the differences between zakat, infaq, and almsgiving that you need to know:

Charity

Charity includes everything that one person gives to another person with the sincere intention of seeking pleasure and reward from God. The form itself is free, including the time and rate are also not bound. Charity includes giving in the form of material things such as money, property, etc. also in the form of good deeds or services.

Infaq

The scope of charity itself is broad, while the scope of infaq is more limited to the aspect of using or spending property for good purposes. Infaq as a charity in the form of property which is then given out with the sole intention of hoping for God’s pleasure. There is no stipulation of rate or time infaq is paid. So, every Muslim can spend anywhere, anytime, and in any amount.

For example, infaq to go to Hajj, Umrah, and support the family, also to pay zakat, put money in the charity box of the mosque, feed the poor and orphans, give donations to people who have been hit by calamities or various disasters, and so on. .

Zakat

Zakat is one of the pillars of Islam and must be paid if a Muslim has fulfilled the various conditions of obligatory zakat. Because the law of zakat is actually obligatory, then all aspects of its implementation have been regulated in detail by the Sharia. If there are rules that are not followed there will be consequences, the zakat that is then paid is considered invalid and must be repeated.

Some scholars also state that zakat is an obligatory charity that is taken from certain assets such as gold, silver (or savings), and livestock that have then met a certain amount. In addition, zakat must also be given to the eight groups who are entitled to receive it (al-ashnaf ats-tsaniyah) and be paid within a certain period of time.

endowment

Waqf According to jurisprudents, it is included in one of the practices of property charity which is done permanently by freezing its use or tasaruf for things allowed in the Sharia. In short, waqf is charity in the form of assets.

For example, land, wells, houses or buildings, hospitals, mosques, and other public buildings that are productive. Assets from this waqf itself cannot be reduced in value and must be able to be developed according to sharia or according to the principles in Islam.