Ibnu sabil is – Sinaumed’s friends, Zakat is one of the worships that must be carried out by Muslims because it is the fourth pillar of Islam. The payment of zakat is obligatory for everyone whose wealth has reached the nishab, haul, and other conditions.
Quoted from the book Everyday Muslim Guide by DR. KH. M. Hamdan Rasyid, MA and Saiful Hadi El-Sutha , Zakat comes from the word zakaa-yazkuu-zakaatan which means holy, growing, good and growing.
While the concept of zakat according to the term is a collection of funds that must be issued by every Muslim whose wealth has reached the nishab for those who are entitled to receive it. Zakat orders are listed in paragraph 11 of At-Taubah letter.
فَإِن تَابُوا۟ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلcel
Meaning: ” If they repent, pray and pay zakat, then (they) are your brothers in the same religion. And We explain its verses to those who know it.”
Payment of zakat fitrah is obligatory for Muslims except 8 people who are included in mustahiq. This is because there is a verse in the Qur’an which discusses the groups of people who are entitled to receive zakat, namely the word of Allah SWT in Surah At Tawbah verse 60 which means:
“Indeed, zakat is only for groups of poor people, poor people, amil zakat, people whose hearts are softened (converts), to (liberate) slaves, to (free) people who have debts (Gharimin), for people who struggle in way of Allah and for people who are traveling (Ibnu sabil), as an obligation from Allah. Surely Allah is All-Knowing and All-Wise.”
In the Al-Quran letter At Taubah verse 60 above, who is Ibn Sabil who has the right to receive zakat? What are the criteria? If sinaumedia’s friends don’t know what Ibn Sabil is, it would be nice to listen to the discussion on Ibn Sabil below, because sinaumedia will discuss more about Ibn Sabil from several sources. Come on, see the explanation!
What is Ibn Sabil?
Ibnu Sabil was a traveler who could not return to his hometown due to lack of provisions or funds. Because Ibnu Sabil was a person who had difficulty paying for the return journey. So zakat for Ibn Sabil is intended to prevent their suffering along the way.
In language, this term has two basic words, namely Ibn or bin (ابن) which means child, and sabil (السبيل) which means way. So that when it is interpreted to be someone who walks on it because the road is fixed.
Ibn Sabil (ابن سبيل) is a figurative word for traveler, i.e. walking from one area to another.
Imam Ibn Uthaymeen said:
السبيل : الطريق ، وابن السبيل أي : المسافر ، وسمي بابن السبيل ؛ لأنه ملازم للطريق ، والملازم للشيء قد يضاف إليه بوصف البنوة ، كما يقولون : ابن الماء ، لطير الماء ، فعلى هذا يكون المراد بابن السبيل المسافر الملازم للسفر ، والمراد المسافر الذي انقطع به السفر أي نفدت نفقته ، فليس معه ما يوصله إلى بلده
“As-Sabil means way. Ibn Sabil means traveler. Called Ibn Sabil (street child) because he was always traveling. And people who are always in a certain position sometimes associate it with child relationships. Like, Ibnul Maa (child of water), because he is always where there is water.” (as-Syarh al-Mumthi’, 6/154-156)
Therefore, the meaning of Ibn Sabil is a traveler on a journey. While the meaning of a traveler who cannot continue his journey means that he has run out of provisions, so he does not have provisions for the journey back to his area.
وأما من كان في بلده ويريد أن يسافر فإنه ليس ابن سبيل ، فلا يعطى من الزكاة لهذا الوصف … وابن السبيل
“For people who are in his area and want to continue their journey, he is not called Ibn Sabil. Therefore, it is not permissible to issue zakat for this condition. Ibn Sabil received zakat to cover his needs, and it was not a requirement for him to be a poor person in his area. (as-Syarh al-Mumthi’, 6/154-156)
From this understanding, Ibn Sabil is included in the group of people who are entitled to receive zakat.
According to the scholars of the Shafi’i and Hanbali schools, what is included in the category of Ibn Sabil is someone who runs out of provisions during his journey, even though he is actually a person who has enough at home, although some other scholars are of the opinion that this kind of person should just owe money, and not give zakat money.
However, Ibnu Sabil did not say that if a person runs out of reserves while traveling, he has an ATM card in his wallet, which can easily withdraw his savings at any time.
Not everyone can be called ibn sabil, unless they meet the following conditions.
Ibn Sabil’s Conditions
Reporting from various sources, there are several conditions that are included in Ibn Sabil, which are as follows:
1. Has no other assets
Previously it was mentioned that Ibn Sabil was a foreigner who had no money to return to his homeland. So, if there are still other assets in his hands, then he is not considered a recipient of zakat like Ibn Sabil.
2. Travel is not for immorality
An Ibn Sabil who is entitled to receive zakat does not travel for purposes that are immoral or not pleasing to Allah. A good example of a trip is a trip for the purpose of worship, for example studying knowledge and going to Hajj.
3. No one gives loans
At that time, he didn’t have the money to return to his country, even though he was a rich man in his country. If he has unpaid debts, or with other people whose whereabouts are unknown, or with people who are having financial difficulties, or with people who have reneged on their debts, all of that does not prevent him from being entitled to receive zakat.
- In the current context, it can be said as ibnu sabil for Indonesian Migrant Workers (TKI) who are stuck in other countries, so that, let alone earning a decent living, even returning to their home country is difficult, because they do not have the money to buy tickets back to Indonesia.
- Likewise for those who are victims of human trafficking or human trafficking which incidentally mostly affects poor people, then in the concept of zakat they must also be included in the list of mustahiq zakat just like Ibnu Sabil.
Who are the people who are entitled to receive zakat besides Ibn Sabil?
Zakat in Islam is divided into two types, namely zakat fitrah and zakat mal. Muzakki must issue zakat which will later be distributed to mustahiq or groups of people who are entitled to receive zakat.
This has been explained in QS. At-Taubah verse 60 above that people who are entitled to receive zakat are divided into 8 groups including Ibn Sabil, including:
Fakir is a group that is included in the recipient of zakat. They say zakat mustahik because they do not have their own source of income. He had neither the wealth nor the proper means of support to support himself with clothing, housing, and food.
Often, a lack of a source of income is due to several factors, such as a serious problem or serious illness. Giving zakat to the poor can be given in two ways. You do this by giving zakat for daily living needs or as business capital.
The poor are another group of people who can be classified as recipients of zakat. Often equated with the poor, they are people who have a source of income but not enough to live on.
In addition, they are also unable to fulfill their responsibilities including food, clothing, shelter and other needs. Jumhur Ulama considers the needy and poor to be among the groups targeted by the lack of necessities.
Zakat mustahik is followed by riqab, slave or slave. In Arabic, the word raqabah means slave. This servant is a mercenary. Riqab here includes Mutabtab, namely a slave who is bound by a contract with his master. Nothing else, it is to make up for or inspire the precursor.
In this case, zakat is used to free slaves from their masters, so that they can live properly. Giving zakat to riqab occurred in the early days of the development of Islam.
However, in a study by the DKI Jakarta Province Indonesian Ulema Council, riqab was omitted from mustahik zakat in Indonesia. In fact, the riba or slave in question can be considered human trafficking or human trafficking.
4. Gharimin or Gharim
Mustahik zakat or the next group of zakat recipients is gharimin or gharim. In language, the meaning of gharimin or gharim is a person who is in debt.
There are 2 groups that benefit from this zakat, namely:
- Gharim mashlahati nafsihi : Debt for one’s own interests or needs
- Gharim li ishlâhi dzatil : in debt to reconcile people, qabilah or tribe
Ustadz Abu Riyadl Nurcholis bin Mursidi explained that the two types of Al-Gharim are entitled to receive zakat, but with additional conditions.
For example, in ghârim linafsihi, it means that someone must be in a bad condition. As for ghârim li ishlâhi dzatil bain, he can get zakat even though he is rich.
Following are the conditions for gharim to receive zakat, including:
- Islamic religion
- Al-Faqr (poor)
- Debt is not due to immorality
- No more income
- Not descendants of Bani Hasyim (descendants of Rasulullah SAW’s parents)
- Debt payment due date
- Gharim is not the responsibility of muzaki (people who give zakat)
- Zakat assets from baitul mal to gharim depend on debts that must be paid.
Ibn Qudamah Rahimahullah said, ” Gharim was given zakat to cover his debts even though they were very large.”
Converts or people who have just converted to Islam are also included in mustahik zakat.
The zakat received by converts is intended to help strengthen their faith and diversity by following Islam.
Zakat recipients of the convert group (asnaf) can be divided into 4, namely:
- New converts to Islam
- Those whose faith is weak
- A group whose faith is vulnerable
- Owners of power from non-Muslims who avoid evil
In addition, zakat for converts also has a social role because it can strengthen kinship ties.
Apart from converts, the next mustahiq of zakat is fisabilillah (a person or institution whose main activity is fighting on the side of Allah SWT. Their main goal is to uphold Islam.
The fisabilillah here are not just one person, but an Islamic broadcasting institution in big cities or Islamic symbols in remote areas who are entitled to receive zakat.
Examples of fisabilillah here are preachers, education development, health, orphanages, madrasah diniyah, and so on.
Therefore, they all have the right to receive zakat assistance because they are willing to sacrifice for the sake of upholding Islamic law.
7. Amil Zakat
The last mustahiq of zakat is the amil zakat, namely the person whose job is to collect zakat funds that have been given by muzakki (people who are subject to the obligation to pay zakat) and distribute them to mustahiq.
This can be an institution or the local community who are given the responsibility to collect zakat assets. This Amil belongs to the last group of all the groups described above who deserve their rights.
The people who are entitled to receive zakat above have been determined by the Al-Qur’an so that the distribution of zakat may only be carried out by 8 groups of mustahiq zakat.
Benefits of Paying Zakat to Ibn Sabil
Basically the command to pay zakat has been discussed in the Al-Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet. Zakat also needs to give it to people who are entitled to receive zakat. As for there are still some benefits of paying zakat to Ibn Sabil, namely:
1. Bringing Good
First, the benefit of paying zakat to Ibn Sabil is that it can increase sustenance, improve the quality of life, the heart feels calm, and life feels more peaceful because of the good things we have done.
When humans do good throughout their lives, people will be kind to them and will bring happiness not only in this world, but in the hereafter also get the same pleasure.
2. Getting the Best Reward
Another benefit of zakat is that Allah will give his servant the best reward. In addition, every Muslim who pays zakat will also be more supported by Allah. As in the following verses of Al-Qur’an An-Nur 37-38 which means:
“(They do that) so that Allah will repay them (with a reward) that is better than what they did, and so that Allah will increase His goodness to them . (QS An-Nur: 37 – 38).
3. Forgiven his sins
A Muslim pays zakat, then his mistakes and sins will be forgiven by Allah SWT. Not only that, Allah SWT also ensures that every Muslim who prays and pays zakat is guaranteed to enter heaven. As in Al-Qur’an Surat Al-Maidah: 12, Allah SWT says:
“And verily Allah has taken the covenant (of) the children of Israel, and We have appointed leaders among them, and Allah said: “Verily, I am with you, verily if you will perform your prayers and pay zakat and believe in my Messenger, help them and lent generous loans to God
Truly I will cover my sins your mistakes and the fact that I will take you to heaven where there are rivers, so whoever among you does not believe after this, then that person has really strayed from the right path “(QS) Al -Maidah: 12).
4. Achieve Perfect Faith
As explained in the hadith of Rasulullah SAW, he said:
“One of you will not believe (with perfect faith) until he loves his brother as he loves himself.” (Narrated by Bukhari: 13)
There is a relationship between the meaning of hadith and zakat, because being a human being is not only concerned with self-pleasure. However, humans also need to care for people who are less able and help those in need.
5. The Ticket Road to Heaven
When the muzakki have paid their zakat perfectly to the group of people who are entitled to receive zakat. So, zakat is a ware for someone to achieve goodness.
In relation to heaven, another benefit of zakat is that the reward obtained can be a ticket that can launch and ensure people to enter Heaven.
This is a review of the meaning of Ibn Sabil, conditions, examples, and the benefits of paying zakat to Ibn Sabil. For Sinaumed’s who want to know more about other ibnu sabil, you can visit sinaumedia.com to get related books.