People Eligible to Receive Zakat – Does Sinaumed’s know who are the people who are entitled to receive zakat in Islamic teachings? Exactly, zakat is one of the obligations for Muslims that we must know the knowledge of. Sinaumed’s can listen to this article to the end to understand about zakat, especially the groups of people who are entitled to receive zakat.
Know About Zakat
Zakat is a certain portion of assets that all Muslims have to pay after reaching the specified conditions. As one of the pillars of Islam, zakat is paid to be given to those who are entitled to receive it (asnaf). Zakat comes from the form of the word “zakat”. It means holy, good, blessed, growing and prospering. It is called zakat because it contains the hope of blessing, purifies the soul, and nourishes it with various goodness.
The importance of growth in the sense of zakat shows the issuance of zakat, the implementation of zakat as a cause of growth and development of wealth, and the result is many rewards. This sacred meaning shows that zakat is to purify the soul from badness, wickedness, and cleansing from sin. The Qur’an says, “Take zakat from some of their property, and with this zakat you purify and sanctify them” (Sura at-Taubah : 103).
According to the terms of Al Howi’s book, Al Mawaldi defines zakat by the name of taking something from certain assets and giving it according to certain characteristics and certain groups. People who pay zakat are called Muzaki. While people who are entitled to receive zakat are called mustahik. According to the Decree of the Minister of Religion No. 52 of 2014, Zakat is property that must be issued by a Muslim or a company owned by a Muslim to be given to those who are entitled to receive it according to Islamic law.
Zakat will be deducted from the property of a Muslim. However, not all assets are required to be zakat. The conditions for zakat assets are as follows:
- The assets are halal goods and obtained in a lawful way
- The property is fully owned by the owner
- These assets are assets that can be developed
- The assets reach the nishab according to the type of property
- The treasure passes through the haul
- The owner of the property has no short-term debt to pay off.
People who are entitled to issue zakat are called mustahik. Currently, there are eight groups with the qualification of Zakat Fitrah. Zakat Fitrah is obligatory zakat for all Muslims, whether they are adults, male or female, rich or poor.
This zakat fitrah will be paid no later than before the start of the first Shawwal vows every year. If you pay zakat according to your prayers, it will be counted as regular charity.
The Prophet Muhammad, as told by Ibn Abbas, said, “We force Zakat Fitrah to cleanse the souls of fasting people from useless and dirty words and to feed the poor after the Id prayer.” (DR Abboud) Concerning people who fulfill the requirements as Zakat Fitrah in the Holy Month of Ramadan, Allah says in Surah At-Taubah verse 60:
إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
Meaning, “Indeed, zakat is only for the needy, the poor, zakat administrators, converts whose hearts are persuaded, freeing slaves, people who have debts, are in the way of Allah and for those who are on their way, is as a provision what Allah has made obligatory, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (Surah At-Taubah: 60)
Based on the verses of the Al-Quran above, people who are entitled to receive zakat can be classified as follows:
Groups of People Eligible to Receive Zakat
1. The Poor
Poor people are citizens of an Islamic state who must be prioritized as recipients of zakat. There are two ways to distribute Zakat money to the poor. That is, meeting the needs of daily life and providing entrepreneurial skills. In Arabic, the word faaqir comes from the word faqr, which means “backbone”, the former (faqir) means “one who breaks his back” because of a heavy burden.
Fakir is seen from the condition of clothing, food, and shelter, while the poor are those who can only meet their basic needs and more than half of their loved ones. But it can’t fulfill all his needs. A person is considered poor if his basic needs are higher than his income. For example, if a person has 6,070,000 basic needs. But he can only be called poor because he earns only 1000 in 2030.
Another example also mentions someone who is unable to work (disabled, sick, etc.) but has assets of around 25 million, he can be said to be destitute because the remaining wealth is estimated to be unable to cover his basic needs in the estimated remaining life. The basic needs of the poor are said to start with clothing, food, shelter and health. In addition, there are also people who are not lucky enough to attend formal schools.
The standard of the poor population is those who still have income, but have formal education but cannot meet all their basic needs. For example, a person with a monthly income of 700,000 is considered poor, but his basic needs exceed that. The most fundamental difference between the poor and the poor is that the poor have an income that covers less than half of their basic needs. This may be due to old age or lack of school education.
2. The Poor
The so-called poor people are people who are really in poverty because of an inadequate life. From the perspective of the Shafi’i school of thought, the poor are those who can meet more than half of their needs, but that is not enough.
Sinaumed’s needs to know that the poor are different from the poor. In poverty, people still have regular income and employees, but are in total poverty to provide for their families. In Islam, the poor are also included in the group of people who are entitled to receive mustahik zakat. Better to be the fulfillment of their needs.
3. Amil Or Zakat Administrator
Al Amilin or amil zakat is the person who is responsible for collecting zakat and distributing it to the groups entitled to receive it. Therefore, Al-Amilin is also registered as Mustahiq Zakat and is entitled to the distribution of Zakat which has been pre-selected by the Imam of the mosque.
The Zakat Commission itself was chosen as Amil Zakat, including independence (enough), justice, Akir, Barry, and Muslims who can see the legal basis of men and Islam, especially those who understand Zakat.
There are several conditions, namely that an Amil is the last group entitled to receive zakat when seven other groups receive zakat. Literally Amil means a person who collects and collects zakat funds given by Zakat Managers or muzakki (people who give zakat).
Converts are also a group of people who are entitled to receive zakat to help strengthen their faith and piety to accept Islam. Zakat given to converts has a social role as a tool to strengthen brotherhood among Muslims. Converts feel safe and help them learn about Islam.
The term convert refers to people who have recently converted to Islam and whose faith and devotion are not yet established. The converts themselves were divided into three parts. That is, those who have converted to Islam and whose minds are still unstable must receive advice and input in order to receive Zakat.
Then, if they study hard and stay away from prohibitions, there are people who convert to Islam to get zakat, and the last one is a true convert and needs guidance.
5. Slave Or Riqab
People who are entitled to receive the next zakat are slaves or slaves who are freed from their masters and need ransom money. Zakat Dzur Riqab also covers the release of Muslims who are caught by bad people, or the release of Muslims from prison for not being able to pay fines and food.
Riqab or slave actually no longer exists today. However, the term may also be related to efforts to liberate Muslims who have been arrested by political parties or other groups.
In the early days of the development of Islam, zakat was also used to abolish slavery by freeing it from employers. Once freed, the slave is free to live as he should. Quoted from the Dompet Dhuafa Sharia Council, Izzuddin Abdul Manaf, Lc. MA, linguistically argues that riqab is the plural form of raqabah, meaning neck. Because of the value of this precious member, the whole body is named after one limb.
Rikabu is a servant who belongs to someone because the word Rakaba is absolutely used to mean servant. Riqab and here is entered as Mukatab, namely a servant who makes an agreement with his master to redeem himself or hairumukatab.
According to Yusuf Qardhawi, Riqab is the plural form of Rakaba. This term in the Qur’an means male slaves (abid), not female slaves (amah). This term is explained in the sense of liberation or deliverance. It’s as if the Koran marked it with this metaphorical word.
In other words, the enslavement of people is no different from the bonds that bind them. Most Indonesian migrant workers (BMI) are in more developed Asian countries and the Middle East, especially Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Japan, Kuwait, Syria and Iraq. Even this year, the number of Indonesians seeking work abroad is the highest.
An estimated 6.5-9 million Indonesian migrant workers worldwide, including 2.6 million in Malaysia and 1.8 million in the Middle East. It is estimated that 69% of Indonesian workers working abroad are women and more than 50% of Indonesian workers working abroad are children. The NGO Migrant Care Indonesia estimates that 43% or around 3 million Indonesian workers abroad are victims of human trafficking.
6. Al Gharim Or The Debtor
This term refers to people who are in debt and bankrupt. However, keep in mind that debt is used for personal gain, not for immoral needs. This is HR Abu Daud which is in accordance with the words of the Prophet Muhammad SAW “If given to a rich person, zakat is not permissible except for five reasons: fighting in the way of Allah, giving alms, borrowing, buying alms with wealth, Or a rich person who receives alms from the poor. ”
As people entitled to receive zakat, Algarim can be divided into two types:
- Ghârim limaslahati nafsihi is being in debt for the benefit or needs of himself
- Ghârim li ishlâhi dzatil bain is being in debt for reconciling people, qabilah or tribe
Fisabilillah or Alm Hajidin is a group that defends Islam and fights for the right to worship, human rights, and freedom of worship which is obtained by all Muslims, without wages and rewards for defending it. Fisabilillah is a person or institution whose main activity is fighting in the way of Allah to uphold Islam.
Current Zakat Fisabilillah recipients can be in the form of da’wah organizations in big cities and Islamic teachings in remote areas. In addition, Islamic countries that are still colonized are also recipients of Zakat Fisabilillah, such as Palestine. Brothers and sisters like Palestine who are struggling to regain their independence and freedom in their homeland must be assisted in the form of alms above all else.
8. Ibn Sabil
The last Zakat Mustahiq is a traveler, or someone who is on a journey (ibn sabil) whose aim is to seek faith, knowledge and the pleasure of Allah SWT. If you run out of supplies when you travel, that means Ibn Savill. This group of zakat recipients is intended for people who cannot afford to continue their journey, whether disabled or otherwise.
People Who Are Obliged to Pay Zakat
If the person entitled to receive zakat is called Asnaf, then the person using zakat is called Muzakki. Of course, to become a Muzakki, Sinaumed’s must meet certain requirements. There are several conditions that must be met by someone who has to pay zakat as follows:
1. Religion of Islam
A Muslim is the first requirement to become a zakat payer. They must become a Muslim. This is because Zakat is Islamic law and must be created from one Muslim to another.
2. Muzakki is a Free Person
Muzakki is a free person. The next condition that must be met by Muzakki is an independent state. Freedom means the position of the person is not the position of a slave who has ties with the owner. He is responsible for himself.
3. Perfect Property Owner
The perfect real estate owner For Muzakki who wants to use Zakat Maal or Zakat Treasure, he must legally become the full owner of the property.
4. Total Assets Have Reached Nisab
Nisab is now jointly owned. In issuing zakat mal, the condition must be met that the assets purchased have reached the nisab. Nisab is the amount that a person must own before a property is eligible to issue zakat. For example, the nisab for Zakat Maal is 85 grams of gold. If his wealth does not reach more than 85 grams of gold, he is not subject to zakat.
5. Reached Haul
Having reached the level of Zakat means that the property has been owned for one year. If the assets are less than one year old, the assets do not qualify for zakat.
Well, that’s an explanation about zakat, especially the groups of people who are entitled to receive zakat and those who are obliged to pay zakat. Can Sinaumed’s understand it? Sinaumed’s needs to understand this because zakat is obligatory for all Muslims who are classified as capable or wealthy. All Muslims who can own assets and Nisab or transported assets must pay zakat.