Definition of Hoax: History, Types, Examples, Causes and How to Avoid Them

Definition of Hoax – Readers, have you ever received hoax news? Hoax news is currently circulating in society and social media. Many people deliberately make hoax news. This will be a concern in itself. Apart from containing elements or information that is not true, hoax news will also divide many parties.

Even though there are many warnings about fake news, it turns out that there are still many people who cannot distinguish between fake news and true news. This article will discuss hoax news. Starting from understanding to how to overcome.

Definition of Hoax

What is a hoax? The word hoax is no stranger to us. If someone says it, surely we can understand it. In English, hoax is an adaptation of the word “hoax” which means fake news. So it can be concluded that hoax is news containing information whose facts or truth have been changed so that it becomes untrue news.

1. According to KBBI

According to KBBI, hoax is false information. According to KBBI, the perpetrators of spreading hoaxes collected news that passed on many mailing lists.

2. According to Septiaji Eko Nugroho

The Chairperson of the Indonesian Community Against Defamation, Septiaji Eko Nugroho explained that hoax is fabricated information. This information is made to cover up real information. Apart from that, hoax is also an attempt to twist the facts. These facts will be replaced with convincing information but the truth cannot be verified.

Furthermore, Septiaji means that hoax is an act of obscuring true information. The trick is to flood a media, through the wrong messages. This causes the correct message to be masked.

3. According to Professor Muhammad Alwi Dahlan

Communication expert from the University of Indonesia, Professor Muhammad Alwi Dahlan who is also the former Minister of Information, expressed his opinion regarding hoaxes and ordinary fake news. The difference between the two is that hoax is something that is intentional or planned.

According to him, hoax is manipulation of news that is deliberately carried out and aims to provide false recognition or understanding. Hoax news contains distortion of facts that make it interesting. In accordance with its purpose, to get attention.

This book provides complete information on hoax issues. Such as defamation and hate speech. We often take these problems for granted, especially in the realm of social media. By understanding the concept of this crime, you can be more careful when socializing in the technological era, as well as being able to act smartly according to applicable laws, when you yourself become a victim.

Hoax History

The word hoax became known and used in England in the 18th century, precisely at the same time as the publication of the book A Glossary: ​​Or, Collection of Words, Phrases, Names and Allusions to Customs, written by Robert Nares in 1822. He wrote about the origins of the word hoax. . According to him, hoax comes from the word “hocus” in “hocus pocus” . According to him, hocus pocus is a spell cast by witches. The word hocus pocus is taken from the name of one of the famous Italian witches, Ochus Bochus. Then it is used by magicians to show off their tricks.

In his book, Robert also says that the spell is the origin of the word hoax. According to Robert, hoax is fake news made to be funny. In addition, hoaxes are also deliberately made. Hoax aims to confuse the recipient of the information with the intention of entertaining it in the form of a joke. Over time, the word hoax became known and developed, from a joke or joke to a rather serious joke.

In fact, hoaxes are not new in Indonesia. It has been around since ancient times, even before the internet. Ancient people knew the term anonymous letter. Some people say that anonymous letters are letters received without the sender knowing. An anonymous letter containing important things to be conveyed.

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However, some others say that anonymous letters are letters that are used to spread fake news. Hoaxes are increasingly finding places to live, along with the times and technological advances. The absence of internet limitations is the main trigger for the spread of hoax news.

Types of Hoaxes

Lots of information that we can get. However, it is necessary to be careful before accepting it. Do not be fooled by the information that many people get. The following are the types of hoaxes that are widely circulating, namely:

1. Satire or parody

satire or study program is content that is deliberately created by someone. This type of content is widely used to satirize certain parties. Apart from that, this type of satirical content is also made as a form of criticism. Criticism can be conveyed in personal relationships, groups within groups, or to criticize issues that occur in society.

Satire content is actually not completely dangerous content. This satirical content also usually does not have the potential to have an element of crime. However, content like this still deceives the public a lot.

Many people are serious about responding to the content. Another worrying thing is if the contents conveyed are also things that are not yet clear. The people who watched live could have believed it. This will also be hoax news.

2. Misleading content (misleading content)

Misleading content or misleading content is also often made on purpose. This type of content is created to discredit someone or something. The matters raised in the content can also involve one person or many people. This type of content is created to sway public opinion.

Misleading content or misleading content is created by utilizing original information. The information can be in the form of official statements, pictures or photos, statistics and others. The information will be edited in such a way that the information with the content to be created has no relationship.

3. Imposter content (copy content)

Imposter content is imitation content. The information contained in this type of content is usually taken from correct information. Examples include quoting statements from well-known or influential figures. This type of content is not just made for personal use. A lot of this type of content is made to promote something.

This content is created to deceive. Through content similar to the original, fraudsters will create similar content. An example is the service of an application. Many people use the name of an application to cheat. Follow the writing format to the greeting.

4. Fabricated Content (fake content)

The next type of hoax is Fabricated content or fake content. Hoax content on this one is a very dangerous type of content. This content is created to deceive people. Many also suffer from fake content like this.

The information that there is also can not be accounted for. The facts contained in the information are not true. An example that often occurs in this type of content is job vacancy information. On behalf of a company or institution, job vacancy information is made to be similar to the original.

5. False connection

False connections or wrong connections, this type of content is also commonly found on social media. An example that is often found is the difference between content, content titles, and content images. This content is intentionally made to get an advantage.

6. False context (false context)

False context is incorrect content. It is said to be wrong because it contains incorrect information. Examples of content like this include a statement, video or photo that has happened before. Then the incident was rewritten and not adapted to the actual facts.

7. Manipulated content

Manipulated content is content that has been edited. The content will be edited so that it does not match the original content. This type of content is made to deceive the people who read it. Incidents like this are often experienced by the big media. The content they create will be edited or edited by irresponsible people.

Examples of Hoaxes in Indonesia

In Indonesia, hoaxes can appear under any circumstances. The information contained therein also varies. Starting from midwives in education, the cultural sector, the political sector, the religious field, and others. Of course, hoaxes are made with a specific purpose.

For example in the political field, when there is an election for a head of government, there are many hoaxes circulating with the intention of bringing down opponents. Another example in the field of religion, hoaxes are deliberately created and spread to divide harmony between religions.

Apart from the examples above, there are many other types of hoaxes that are commonly encountered. Some examples of hoaxes that are rife in Indonesia

1. Viral hoax

This hoax is related to technology. Contains about the spread of viruses on smartphones, computers, or laptops.

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2. Hoaxes send chain messages

This hoax contains something that must be passed on to other people. There are orders and myths added to these messages. If someone who gets this message does not pass it on, they will be in for bad luck. Usually occurs in chat applications such as WhatsApp or BBM.

3. Hoax urban legend

This hoax contains news that contains scary information in it. Examples include places that smell mystical or seem sacred. Furthermore, the information contained in the news is forbidding readers to visit it. This will result in economic losses for those concerned.

4. Hoax gets a prize

Another example is a hoax containing the news of receiving a free gift. This hoax has happened many times. Sometimes even though readers do not experience material losses, they can be deceived by filling out certain surveys. The impact will be even greater if the victim fills in his identity completely.

5. Hoax sad stories

This hoax contains the sad story of someone who has had bad luck. Usually about someone who is sick or in an accident. Then ask for financial assistance.

6. Hoax defamation

There are many hoaxes circulating on social media. Contains facts about someone who is played back. The impact of this hoax is the defamation of a person’s name.

Causes of Many Hoax News

Hoax news is news that is deliberately created by irresponsible people. Many factors are the reason why there is so much hoax news. One reason is the limited knowledge about the outside world. It also has many factors such as the limitations of the news it gets and the limitations of the media to receive the news.

Another reason is that when you get news, readers only read part of the information. In fact, many only read the headlines. That will cause readers not to think twice about the news they get and think it’s true.

Sometimes it is also related to who the news is obtained from. It cannot be said that everyone has their own thoughts that he considers correct. If we find something that has something in common with that thought, it will make us place a slightly greater level of confidence in it. The result is that we can only trust something that is considered to have something in common.

Sometimes this will apply when receiving news from a particular person or source. That will make us immediately believe that the information contained in the news is the truth. In other words, not open to other sources of information.

Many people find it difficult to distinguish hoax news from true news because they often see the news appear on social media so they are lazy to look for the truth again.

How to Avoid Hoaxes

Ways that can be done to identify the news that is received correctly or not are as follows:

1. Look carefully at the headline

The first thing to read in a news story is definitely the title. Therefore, pay close attention to the title of the news you get. Is it in accordance with the information in the news or not.

2. Be careful if it contains elements of provocation

One of the elements in hoax news is the element of provocation. Provocation is an act to arouse anger, an act of inciting or an act of provoking. If a piece of news or content contains elements of provocation, then that news must be watched out for.

3. See where the source of the news

It is true that information can be obtained through anywhere. However, looking at the source of the information obtained is also important. As readers, we must always be observant and see the authenticity of the news sources we receive.

4. Check the facts of the information in the news

If the information in the news obtained contains a fact, then we need to re-examine that fact. Check the facts contained in the information. You do this by looking for other sources that are definitely trusted.

5. Check the photo or video again

In a news story, sometimes someone inserts a photo or video. The photo or video also needs to be verified again. Can the authenticity of the photos or videos displayed be trusted, or are they just news sweeteners?

6. Think critically

When getting news or information, try to think critically. Don’t swallow the news straight away. Pay close attention to the content of the news and the logic of the news.

7. Do not immediately share

When you receive information or news, don’t share it right away. Especially if you don’t know whether the news you got is true or not. If there is certainty that the news obtained contains correct information, then there is no problem if you want to share it.

8. Join the anti-hoax discussion group

Nowadays, getting information is very easy. Both hoax and true information. One way is through groups on social media. However, there are also groups that contain discussions or open discussions about hoaxes. If needed, join the group. So you can discuss whether the news or information you get is a hoax or not.

That’s some information about hoaxes. Starting from the definition, examples, types, causes to how to overcome them.