Classical Music: History of Development, Types, and Benefits

Classical Music – When talking about classical music, Sinaumed’s will definitely
remember the famous figures Mozart and Beethoven, who actually have many other important figures in
classical music.
The existence of this music genre is rooted in Western art which turns out
to have many benefits.
Yep, it is alleged that classical music can provide a myriad of
benefits for humans as listeners, for example for pregnant women, children, and the
elderly.

Even though this music has its roots in Western art, its existence in Indonesia is also popular in
the eyes of our society.
Not infrequently, classical orchestras are also held in Indonesia,
which on average are well-known musicians.
Then what is
classical
music?
Why can this genre of music provide so many benefits to the human brain?
How is the history of the development of classical music?

So, so that Sinaumed’s isn’t confused about what classical music is, let’s look at the following
review!

What Is Classical Music

Basically, classical music is music that was born from European culture around 1750-1825. This
music is classified in a certain periodization, starting from the classical, baroque, rococo, and romantic
periods.
Until now, classical music is often associated with its great figures, namely Mozart,
Bach, Beethoven, or Haydn.

The existence of classical music is often interpreted as a musical genre that is full of beauty and high
intellect at all times, whether in the form of Mozart’s symphonies, Bach’s cantatas, or works in the 20th
century.

This music is often associated with classicism, a style of art, literature, and architecture from Europe,
especially in the 18th century.
One of the main characteristics of this musical genre is giving
more meaning to the instrumental music.
In classical music, it has a regular rhythm and pitch,
not slanted notes.
Even music experts argue that this musical genre can also be used as an
educational tool as well as a tool to sharpen human intelligence, because it has 3 elements of balance,
namely:

  • Melody
  • rhythm
  • Timbre ( tone color)

Examples of musical works that are still known and played in orchestras, for example:

  • Four Seasons Spring, by Antonio Vivaldi
  • Canon in D Major, by Johann Pachelbel
  • Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, by JS Bach
  • Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, by W.A. Mozart
  • The Blue Danube, by Johann Strauss II

Know at a Glance What is Sonata

Basically, the sonata is a distinctive form of classical music. The form pattern of the sonata
is definitely related to classical music, as seen in the works of Beethoven and Hays who use it as the title
of a musical work.
Sonata is a form of music which consists of 3 parts to form a unified whole.
Each part is designed in a fast tempo, slow, and back again to fast tempo.

The difference with Romantic Music

The existence of classical music is often equated with romantic music, which happened to be brought from
the late 18th century to the early 19th century, or around 1815-1930.
This romantic music is
related to the Romanticism movement that occurred in Europe, in which the movement was not only centered on
music, but also on literature, art and comprehensive intelligence.

The music of the Romantic era has a number of characteristics, one of which is its themes relating to
nature and self-expression.
Some of the famous composers in romantic music, for example Franz
Schubert, Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn, and Robert Schumann.
Well, here are the differences
between classical music and romantic music.

Classical music Romantic Music
Associated with Classicism in Europe. Associated with Romanticism in Europe.
Started in the middle of the 18th century. Started at the end of the 18th century.
The theme of the music is nature and self-expression. The theme of the music is emotional restraint and balance.
The instrumental arrangement includes a symphony without a solo piano piece The instrumental arrangement includes a larger symphony with solo piano pieces.
The musical harmonies consist of chromatics. His musical harmonies consist mostly of diatonic harmonies.
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A Brief History of the Development of Classical
Music

The word “classic” means something that has a high class, so the quality is not arbitrary.
This music genre originally developed in 1795, especially in mainland Europe where it was very
popular with the nobility and community leaders.
This is what causes the idea that this music
was created and intended for the nobility, aka the upper middle class.
However, throughout its
development, especially in the 19th century, this music experienced a shift due to the emergence of other
musical genres that were simpler and more varied, so that it could be enjoyed by the wider community.
Because of this, this music began to be abandoned because it was considered too complicated to
digest.

Yep, this genre of music does require some sharpness and sensitivity to the tones which are produced by
several combinations of musical instruments, so that they become harmonious.
In addition, the
music is also considered complicated with the results of his work taking quite a long time.

Periodization of Classical Music

1. Middle Ages (Medieval: 476 – 1572)

The history of music is closely related to the Middle Ages, aka medieval, which began in 500 (end of the
Roman Empire) to 1400 (early Renaissance).
One of the classical forms of chanting at this time
was the Gregorian
Chant , which flourished until 1100.

Furthermore, the existence of music began to be developed in such a way as to become more complex sounds,
one of which was to combine musical instruments to become more complete.
The musical instrument
of this era that still exists today is the wooden flute.

2. Renaissance Period (1500 – 1600)

In this era, music increased sharply. This is because the use of musical instruments is more
diverse and the type of music produced is more varied.
It was also during this era that
European musical notation and musical ornaments were formed which contributed to innovation in the world of
music.
Especially with the invention of sheet music which makes it easier for musicians to play
songs without having to bring in the composer.

3. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

In this era, music is increasingly developing, namely by using more sophisticated and complex tonal
counterpoints, along with the addition of bass lines . Then, musical drama opera also
appeared which was able to form an image for the art of music itself.

Usually, vocal forms such as orator and cantata are more common to be heard in this classical music.
Meanwhile, the types of ensemble instruments are also classified based on their shape.
This is also the starting point for the formation of orchestral music.

4. The Classical Period (1750-1830)

At this time, special norms began to form, especially in the presentation, style and composition of
classical music.
The piano is the most important musical instrument to use, so the music
results seem lighter and less complex.
Opera also began to be developed in this classical
era.

5. The Romantic Age (1815-1910)

At this time, songwriters focused on melodic lines which were more complex and longer, coupled with
elements of expression and emotion that went hand in hand.
Later, music art institutes in
Europe also began to compose songs for this music and organizations for the preservation of classical music
emerged.
This organization contributes to developing this music in a better direction.

6. Contemporary Modern Age

In this era, classical music has developed with the emergence of songwriters who reject the values ​​of the
previous era.
These values ​​include traditional tonalty , selection of
musical instruments, melodies, and structure.
The songwriters actually focus more on the
development and extension of musical theory and techniques.

An example is classical music in the 20th century which consisted of various combinations of Post Romantic
, including
Post Modern and Romantic Modern .

Types of Classical Music

1. Gregorian notation

In this type of music, the notation used is four lines as musical notes. However, there is no
rhythm rotation so that the count or beat is based on the feelings of the singer.

2. Organum Music

In this type of music, the arrangement of the songs is octave apart. The high-pitched voices
are made up of child and female singers, while the low-pitched voices are made up of male singers.

3. Music Discant

In this type of music, preferring diaphonic music. Diaphonic music is shaped to create both
stronger and lower sounds by following the melodies of the high and low quarts.

4. Basso Ostinato

In this type of music, there is a series of notes that move step by step downwards or upwards.
Then, the sequence of notes is repeated on another series of notes together.

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5. Baroque Era Polyphonic Music

In this type of music, it has a high counterpunch technique.

6. Homophonic Music of the Classical Era

In this type of music, there is an arrangement of chords based on tri-sounds ( triads ) that develop into
four or more sounds, usually called harmony music.

7. Classical Music of the Romantic Era

In this type of music, there is complete orchestration. Usually this type of music is easily
accepted by the general public in opera music, ballet music, and Viennese waltz.

8. Modern Classical Music

In this type of music, there are also various musical genres that develop in it, ranging from rock music,
traditional music, to religious music.
The most famous works in this genre of music are Kitaro,
Richard Clayderman, and others.

Figures in the Development of Classical Music

1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart was born on January 27 in Salzburg, Austria. He is considered one of the most important
composers in European classical music and is famous in history.
His works number about 700
songs, including compositions, piano scores, opera scores, and choral scores.
Examples of works
by Mozart are the operas Don Giovanni and Die Zauberflote.

2. Ludwig Van Beethoven

Beethoven was born on December 17, 1770 in Bonn, Germany which became a legendary classical music composer.
His most famous musical work is Symphony No. 5 and No. 9, as well as the
piano song Fur Elise.
Unfortunately, She is totally deaf and thus becomes very
introspective.

3. Johann Pachelbel

Pachelbel was born on September 1, 1653 in Nuremberg, Germany, who was a composer of classical music during
the Baroque era.
He produced a lot of religious and secular music. His most famous
works are Canon D, Chaconne F Minor, Toccata E Minor, and Hexachordum Apollinis.

4.Johann Sebastian Bach

Bach was born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany who is a famous classical music composer.
He successfully composed music for organ, harpsichord, and orchestra. His most famous
work is the Brandenburg Concerto.

The Influence of Classical Music on Human Life

Against Children’s Learning Concentration

Based on research conducted by Saifaturrahmi Hidayat and Anggia Kargenti EM with the title Effects of Classical
Music on Concentration Endurance in Learning , proving that classical music can increase the
concentration of children and students while studying.
Basically, individuals will not be
able to concentrate if they are in a situation that is too stressful or under pressure.
Now, listening to classical music that has a regular rhythm makes the brain more relaxed,
especially when learning difficult material.

This is in line with the statement that classical music, especially in the Baroque era, can actually cause
the heart rate and blood pressure to relax according to the beat of the music.
The body
naturally becomes relaxed and alert, so the mind is able to concentrate more easily.

For Pregnant Women and Their Babies

The existence of classical music turns out to play an important role in efforts to activate the left and
right brains of babies in the womb of pregnant women.
This of course affects the balance
between cognitive aspects, emotional aspects, and causes certain motor movements in the fetus and newborn.
Pregnant women will usually stimulate their fetus, through the sounds of music to form regular
vibrations that can stimulate the senses, organs, and emotions of the fetus.

This is because this music contains fluctuating tones between high tones and low tones which stimulate the
brain.
The mechanism of the human brain is basically a receptor (signal receiver) that can
recognize music.
Well, in this baby’s brain, it has the ability to receive the music even with
limited abilities because the growth of the brain is not perfect.
When babies are born, the
music stimulates and improves their physiology, intelligence and behavior as they develop.

For Adolescent Menstrual Pain Sufferers

The pain experienced by young women, especially during menstruation is of course very painful, as if
something had stabbed in the lower abdomen and thighs.
The pain is caused by an imbalance of
the hormone progesterone in the blood, causing pain to appear.
Generally, this pain is felt in
the lower abdomen that occurs on the first and second days of menstruation.
The pain will
decrease after menstrual blood comes out in large quantities.

In order to get rid of this pain, there is usually an effective distraction method to do, namely music
therapy.
Distraction is a technique of diverting attention to other things so that it will
reduce awareness of this menstrual pain.
Music suitable for use in music therapy is classical
music.

Music therapy is believed to have a beneficial effect on health by affecting the work of organs and
hormones.
These benefits include reducing the intensity of pain that affects the pituitary in
the brain to release endorphins (endogenous opiates) which are released in the descending nerve pathways.
These grooves will later block the transmission of pain stimuli, thereby reducing uterine
contractions.

So, that’s a review of what classical music is and the periodization of its development. Is
Sinaumed’s one of the connoisseurs of this music genre?