Characteristics of the Hikayat: Definition, Purpose, Values, Elements, Types, and Examples

Characteristics of the Hikayat – Basically the saga has the function of entertaining, because the story usually ends happily and is won by a character with a good character as the main character. This saga is generally read as entertainment or solace, as well as to foster one’s fighting spirit.

Before you know about the characteristics of the saga, then of course you need to understand the meaning of the saga first. You need to know that the rich “saga” comes from the Arabic word “Haka” which means to tell or tell.

To find out more fully and clearly, you can listen to the full discussion below. Starting from the meaning of the saga, the characteristics of the saga, to examples of the saga.

A. Definition of Hikayat in General

In general, Hikayat is an old literary work in the form of prose which tells the life of the royal family, the nobility, famous people, saints around the palace with all their supernatural powers, oddities and miracles from the main character. Based on etymology, the term Hikayat comes from Arabic, namely “Haka”. The meaning of the word “Haka” means that to tell or tell a story.

Meanwhile, based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), saga is an old Malay literary work in the form of prose. The saga contains fictional, religious, biographical, or a combination of stories, laws, and genealogies that are read as solace, uplifter, or just to enliven a party.

Hikayat can be said to be similar to a historical story in the form of a biography. In the saga there are several things that are considered absurd, and full of miracles.

Generally, the saga contains stories about supernatural powers, the life of kings, stories between good people and bad people, and other fictional stories. In the saga, many tell stories that end happily and are won by the main character and the hero. Naturally, if saga is usually read as entertainment or solace, and even to raise one’s fighting spirit.

B. Definition of Hikayat Based on Experts

There are a number of definitions of saga based on experts, including:

1. According to Sugiarto

The word “hikayat” comes from Arabic which means story or story. At first this word was used in Malay, the original meaning of which is still attached. With that in mind, it’s not surprising that all works in prose in old Malay literature are usually called saga.

2. According to Sudjiman

Based on the term, the word Hikayat at the beginning of the title of the story caused misunderstandings for people in the past. Because these Malay story texts were written using Malay and Arabic letters. So that when the manuscript was copied into Latin letters, the word saga was written in capital letters, resulting in a misunderstanding among the copyists who considered the word saga as part of the title of the story.

3. According to Suherli

This saga is a variety of folklore that is included in a narrative text. Hikayat is a classic Malay story that shows elements of storytelling with the characteristics of the supernatural powers and impossibility of the characters.

C. Characteristics of Hikayat

The saga is part of old prose which has the following characteristics:

1. Using old Malay

2. Prelogical, meaning a story that is sometimes difficult to accept in the mind.

3. Palace centric, meaning that the center of the story is in the palace environment.

4. Anonymous, meaning prose whose author is not clear.

5. Static, meaning it is fixed and standard.

6. Using archaic words, meaning words that are currently not commonly used, such as the words Hatta, sebermula, and syahdan.

7. Traditional. In general, the characteristics of the saga are that it has a traditional nature or continues customs and culture that are considered good.

8. Using cliche language, meaning using language repeatedly.

9. Has a didactic nature, so that it can educate sufficiently both religiously and morally.

10. Magical, meaning that the author brings the reader into an imaginary world, so that later the reader will have beautiful imaginations.

11. Tells stories universally, for example there is a good war with a bad war. Later the war will win the good not the bad or the evil.

12. Have a happy ending.

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D. Purpose of the Story

The following are the purposes of writing the saga text, including:

1. As a means to foster enthusiasm for readers.
2. As a means to entertain.
3. As a means to enliven an event or atmosphere.
4. As a means to convey noble values.

E. Saga Structure

There is a writing structure of the text of the saga, including:

1. Abstract

The abstract in the text of this saga has an optional nature. So that it may exist and may not exist in the text of the saga. Abstract itself, is a general description of the entire contents of the saga.

2. Orientation

In this orientation structure contains information about the setting of the story or events that occur. The intended information relates to who, where, when, and why.

3. Complications

This Complication Structure contains a series of events arranged chronologically, based on time sequence by covering the main events experienced by the characters. The complication section also contains conflict which is the main attraction of a story.

4. Resolution

The resolution structure contains concluding statements regarding a series of events that have been described previously. In this section there is also a conflict that is starting to subside and is often known as the problem solving section.

5. Code

The coda are closing words which have the function of concluding and reaffirming an important message contained in the contents of the saga. This coda structure is included in the optional section.

F. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Elements of the Hikayat

The elements in this saga are not much different from other prose. The saga itself is formed by using intrinsic and extrinsic elements.

Intrinsic element is the building element of the story from within. While the extrinsic elements are the building blocks from the outside. The following are the intrinsic elements in a saga, including:

1. Theme, is an idea that underlies a story.

2. Plot, is a chain of events in a story. This flow has 3 (three) categories namely:

a. The plot is forward or straight or progressive, meaning that these events are told sequentially from the beginning to the end.

b. The plot is backwards or flashback or regressive, meaning that this story starts from the end or in the middle of the conflict, then the causes are sought.

c. Mixed plot or back and forth, meaning using two plots, namely forward and backward plots like a novel or romance.

3. Setting, contains the setting of the place, time, and atmosphere depicted in a story. The following is a brief explanation of the background of the place, time and atmosphere.

a. Setting of place, meaning where this story takes place.

b. Setting of time, meaning when the event occurred.

c. The setting of the atmosphere, means how the circumstances when the story happened.

4. Character, is a story actor.

The depiction of the character of this character is known as characterization. The following is a brief explanation of the characters, character traits, and character descriptions, including:

a. Character is the name of the character or actor in the saga. There are antagonists, protagonists, and tritagonists.

b. Character is the character or nature or characteristics of the characters physically and psychologically.

c. Depiction of character, namely the author’s way of describing character traits, you can do this using 5 (five) ways, namely:

  • Directly
  • In dialogue between characters
  • Other characters’ responses
  • The thoughts of the characters
  • Behavior, and environment of the characters.

5. Mandate, is the message the author wants to convey through a story.

6. Point of view, is the center of the story from where the story is told by the storytellers. Is it from the first person as the main character, the first person as a side character, the third person as an all-knowing person, the third person as the main character, and the third person in a story or as an observer.

7. Style, is how a writer presents a story using language, as well as other elements of beauty. A story is inseparable from figurative language and also connotations, such as metaphor, hyperbole, personification, paradox, synecdoche, synesthesia, and others.

In addition to the intrinsic elements, there are also extrinsic elements in a saga that have a relationship with the background of the story. For example, the background of customs, religion, culture, and so forth. You need to know that this extrinsic element also has a connection with the values ​​or norms of life in a story. For example moral values, culture, religion, and many others.

G. Values ​​in Hikayat

Before understanding the values ​​contained in the saga, it is necessary to know the difference between them and the mandate. Mandate is a message conveyed by the author through the work. While the values ​​are the guidance of behavior or life of a person. Therefore, values ​​are generally seen in the characters of the story characters.

So, here are the values ​​in the saga that you need to know, including:

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1. Moral Values

Moral values ​​are values ​​that are related to the goodness or badness of an attitude or action of the characters in the saga.

2. Social Value

Social value is a value related to life in society.

3. Religious Values

Religious values ​​are values ​​related to religious issues or the relationship of a servant with God.

4. Educational Value

Educational values ​​are values ​​related to attitudes and behavior of a person through a teaching and training effort.

5. Cultural Values

Cultural values ​​are values ​​related to the customs and culture of an area that underlies a story.

H. Saga Type

The types of saga are categorized into 2 (two) types, namely the type of saga according to its content and the type of saga according to its origin. Here’s a quick review.

1. Types of Tales According to their Content

The types of saga according to its contents are divided into 6 (six), among others:

a. Folklore

b. Javanese story

c. Islamic story

d. Indian epic

e. Biography and History

f. Framed Stories

2. Types of Tales According to their Origin

The types of saga according to their origin are divided into 4 (four) parts, namely:

1. Original Malay, for example, the Hikayat Si Miskin, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hikayat Indra Bangsawan, and Hikayat Malim Deman.

2. Javanese influence, for example, the Tale of Weneng Pati, the Tale of Panji Semirang, and the Tale of Indera Jaya from the Anglingdarma story.

3. Hindu or Indian influences, for example, the Pandhawa War Hikayat from the Mahabarata story, Sri Rama Hikayat from the Ramayana story, Bayan Budiman Hikayat, and Sang Boma from the Mahabharata story.

4. Arabic and Persian influences, for example, the Hikayat One Thousand and One Nights, the Hikayat Amir Hamzah or the Hero of Islam, and the Hikayat Bachtiar.

I. Sample Saga

The story has various examples. So, here is an example of a saga about The Poor and Marakarma and its story.

The Tale of the Poor and Marakarma

The saga of Si Miskin and Marakarma begins when a king named Indra is sworn in by Batara Indra. A king and his wife live a poor and miserable life in a forest in a country called the middle of nowhere, led by a king, namely Indra Dewa. These two couples are often referred to as the poor who are tormented and abused by local residents every day. One form of torture and persecution in the form of stoned.

Several years later, the two couples were blessed with a son named Marakarma, meaning child in trouble. The couple’s second child was an only child so he always cared for her with great affection. One day, the poor man was digging the ground and found a mine which contained gold that could be used by his descendants. By the power of God, that place stood a complete kingdom named Puspa Sari.

After the kingdom was established, the two changed their names to Maharaja Indera Angkasa and Tuan Puteri Ratna Dewi. The happiness of the two increased with the presence of a daughter named Nila Kesuma. With a better life, they are not spared from the crimes of local people. For example, the treatment done by Maharaja Indera Dewa, who was very jealous of a country called Puspa Sari and the kindness of a king. Then, he also carried out an evil plan against the Heavenly Sense King’s family.

The necromancer was trapped by Raja Indera Angkasa’s enchantment by informing him of a false prediction that said that the two children of Maharaja Indera Dewa would only cause a disaster for his parents. As a result, the two children were asked to leave or leave Puspa Sari’s country. It didn’t take long for Puspa Sari’s country to be destroyed and the king and queen were also living in poverty again.

The two then ran into the forest. His son Marakarma was suspected of being a thief, then thrown into the sea. Meanwhile, Nila Kesuma was found by a Raja Mendera. After that, he became a wife and he changed his name to Mayang Mengurai. The fate of Marakarma, who drifted into the sea until he was swallowed by a fish, was discovered by a man named Cahaya Chairani and a grandmother named Kabayan.

Marakarma ended up living with the Kabayan grandmother. His life as a flower seller and Marakarma were reunited with his wife, Cahaya Chairani. He also knew that Putri Mayang was his real sister thanks to a story from his grandmother. Then, Marakarma rushed to meet his sister and went to Puspa Sari’s country to meet his mother who was still living suffering from being a wood collector.

Marakarma asked the gods to return Puspa Sari’s country to the way it was before. This Marakarma’s supernatural powers can defeat attacks from the country of Nowhere which is jealous of Puspa Sari’s country. Then, Marakarma became a king in Pagargam Cahaya, the land where his father-in-law and his family lived happily in the land of Puspa Sari.

This is a discussion of the characteristics of the story and others. Hopefully the discussion above can provide knowledge and benefits for readers.

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