5 People Who Can Pay Fidyah – Fidyah is something that is familiar to Muslims. Fidyah is matters related to fasting. Fidyah is a solution that can be done by a Muslim who is seen as physically unable to carry out the fasting of Ramadan.
In addition to that, it is certain that Muslims know that fasting in the month of Ramadan is something that must be carried out. The Islamic religion has set provisions to replace abandoned fasting.
These provisions are regulated for those who are unable to carry out the fasting worship. If you are still physically strong, you are required to replace your fast with another fast. He must fast at other times and outside the month of Ramadan.
Meanwhile, if he is physically weak and makes him unable to fast, then the Ramadan fasting debt can be replaced by paying a fidyah. Before that, it must be understood in advance matters relating to fidyah.
According to the measure, people who are entitled to pay fidyah, people who are entitled to receive fidyah to how to pay fidyah. This article will discuss matters related to fidyah. Such as the definition of fidyah, the law of fidyah, the size of fidyah, the person who has to pay fidyah, the person who has the right to receive fidyah and how to do it.
Definition of Fidya
Fidyah is a word of Arabic origin. The origin of the word is “fadaa”. The word means to redeem or replace.
Fidyah is the way someone is done with certain criteria. Fidyah is done to compensate for fasting debts in the month of Ramadan. There are several reasons that make someone not fast in Ramadan.
Fidyah is paying, redeeming or replacing by way of feeding people who are less able or poor. Fidyah is a solution. This solution is carried out by people who do not observe fasting in the month of Ramadan such as the elderly, people who are sick, pregnant women and nursing mothers.
In KBBI or the Big Indonesian Dictionary, fidyah which is a non-standard form of fidiah is a fine. Usually this fine is in the form of staple foods, such as rice. The fine must be paid by a Muslim for violating one of the provisions in fasting. This violation can be done because of a chronic illness, old illness that befell him and so on.
Fidyah is a provision that is not necessarily made because of leaving the fasting month of Ramadan. However, fidyah also has a legal basis. In Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 184 Allah SWT says:
“(That is) a certain number of days. So, who among you is sick or on a journey (then does not fast), (must make up) the number of days (which he did not fast) on other days. For people who are hard to do it, having to pay with a willing heart to do good (who feeds more than a poor person for a finger is better)) is better for him and fasting is better for you if you know “.
Therefore, the legal fidyah is obligatory for people who have been explained in the previous explanation.
The size of the fidyah or the amount that must be issued turns out to be different. This is also reinforced by the opinions or views of different scholars. Here’s the explanation:
1. One mud
Several scholars such as Imam As – Syafi’I, Imam An – Nawawi, and Imam Malik determine the size of fidyah. According to them, the size of the fidyah that must be paid to each poor person is 1 mud of wheat. This size corresponds to the mud size of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam.
The size of the mud and fidyah is the size of the palm of the hand which is directed upwards. The palms are directed to accommodate food. It is the same as when someone is praying.
Mud is a term that refers to the size of the volume. Mud does not refer to a measure of weight. In the book Al – Fiqhul Islami Wa Adillatuhu, it is stated that when measured today, 1 mud means the equivalent of 675 grams or the equivalent of 0.688 liters.
2. Two Mud or Half Sha’
Several other scholars such as Abu Hanifah also explained their opinion. According to him, half a Sa’ or 2 mud is equal to the size of the Prophet Muhammad shallallahu alaihi wasallam or equivalent to half a sha’ of flour or dates.
It is equivalent to giving lunch and dinner to one poor person until he is full. Some scholars are of the opinion that half a sha’ is the weight of 1.5 kg of staple food.
Mentioned a fatwa of Lajnah Daimah, which reads “Whenever a doctor decides that a disease suffered by a person who does not fast cannot be expected to recover, then he may not fast and is obliged to feed 1 poor person every day an amount of half a sha’ of a staple food. country like dates or something else, if it has fed a poor person a number of days left then it is sufficient “.
3. One Sha’
The size of the fidyah was then revealed from the Hanafiyah circle. Scholars who stated such as Imam Al – Kasani in Bada’i’i wa As-Shana’i’. According to him, one sha’ is equivalent to 4 mud.
Equivalent to the amount of zakat fitrah to be paid. When weighed, 1 sha’ weighs around 2.176 grams. When measured in terms of volume, then 1 sha’ weighs about 2.75 liters.
Based on the fidyah measurements explained by the scholars, the minimum fidyah payment is one mud. However, what should be prioritized is to issue half a sha’ or give one portion of cooked food to each poor person.
Terms of Paying Fidyah
The terms of paying fidyah are as follows:
1. In the form of food
Paying fidyah in the form of food can be done with staple food and ready-to-eat food. If a person does not fast for 30 days, then he must provide fidyah of 30 measures. Each measure weighs up to 1.5 kg.
The fidyah can be paid to 30 poor people. In addition, it may also be paid to some poor people only. For example, like being paid to 3 poor people, then each will get 10 measures.
Feeding can also be done with ready-to-eat food. When a person does not fast for 30 days, he must prepare 30 servings of food. Inside the portion of the food is a plate complete with the side dishes. The food must then be distributed to as many as 30 poor people.
2. In the form of money
Fidyah payments can also be made using cash. Based on the Decree of the head of BAZNAS, No. 7 of 2021 regarding Zakat Fitrah and Fidyah, for the DKI Jakarta Capital area and its surroundings have been determined. The fidyah value in the form of money is around Rp. 45,000, – for each poor person or every day.
Meanwhile, the procedure for paying fidya fasting in Ramadan with actual money is still being debated. According to the Hanafiyah, fidyah is permissible if it is paid in the form of money. In accordance with the applicable dose (equivalent to 1.5 kg of staple food per day, which is converted into rupiah or money).
However, different opinions emerged. The opinion of the majority of scholars such as Syafi’iyah, Hanabilah, and Malikiyah. According to them, fidyah should not be paid in cash.
In this book you will learn to recognize fasting in ramadan with various activities and games that you can do, so that learning to observe ramadan fasting will be fun. Ilavank Sekah game activities that you can do such as coloring, matching pictures, finding ways, sticking stickers, puzzles, counting, looking for differences, and others which are arranged systematically based on basic Islamic teachings.
In addition, this interactive game can train skills, creativity, and stimulate children’s fine motor skills, so that children’s growth and development becomes optimal. Thus, children can learn and recognize fasting in the month of Ramadan while playing through fun, useful and not boring activities.
Who can pay Fidyah?
- The people who are allowed to pay fidyah are as follows:
- Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding. If he is fasting, he is worried that something will happen to the child who is in the womb or is being breastfed.
- People who are sick. People who are sick are generally determined to be difficult to recover.
- Parent. Parents who are physically vulnerable and weak so that they are not required to fast are allowed to pay fidyah.
- People who postpone the obligation to make up qhada. Fasting in Ramadan. He postponed without any excuse syar’i until the time of Ramadan in the following year. In addition to qhada’, they will be required to pay fidyah fasting in previous years. Payments are made as many fast days as the person missed in previous years.
- Dead person. People who have died and bring their fasting debts, then their families who are still alive are obliged to pay fidyah. Fidyah is paid on behalf of the deceased or deceased. Fidyah is paid according to the number of days of fasting.
Who is entitled to receive Fidyah?
The people who are entitled to receive fidyah are as follows:
1. Poor people
The words fakir are often juxtaposed with the word poor. However, the two words have different meanings. When viewed based on economic conditions, this poor group is somewhat more incapacitated or more difficult than people who fall into the poor category.
They have no income. Moreover, they also had no treasures at all. In carrying out life or survival, they will rely on the assistance they receive.
2. The poor
Poor people are different from poor people. Poor people are those who actually still have income. In addition, they are also said to still have property.
However, the assets they have are not able to meet all their daily needs. Therefore, they are also worthy people and need a helping hand from others. This is what they need in order to have a decent life.
3. Parents are sick
The third group of people who are entitled to receive fidyah are people who are old and sick. However, the pain here has no hope of recovery. Parents who have been sick for years are those who are entitled to receive fidyah. Especially for parents who are seriously ill, and otherwise have no hope of recovery.
The three people are entitled to receive assistance in the form of fidyah. If the fidyah is paid to people who do not include the previous explanation, then the fidyah is considered invalid.
That is an explanation of what fidyah is. Fidyah is something that must be done for people who do not observe fasting during Ramadan.
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Author: Wida Kurniasih
Source: from various sources
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