We often hear the buzzing of mosquitoes in open or closed spaces. These mosquitoes are very disturbing both in terms of sound and bite. He can carry various types of diseases, one that many people know is dengue fever.
This mosquito includes short-lived insects. Mosquito metamorphosis itself requires standing water. They will lay their eggs in the water. Then, progress to the next stage.
Even though mosquitoes are small insects, their bite cannot be underestimated. To find out more about mosquitoes, Sinaumed’s can listen to the explanation below which has been summarized from various pages on the internet.
Definition of Mosquitoes
Mosquitoes in English are known as mosquitoes. It comes from Spanish or Portuguese which means small fly. The use of the word mosquito dates back to 1853. In Britain itself, mosquitoes are also known as gnats.
Mosquitoes are animals that belong to the class of insects. It belongs to the order Diptera (flies) and in the family Culicidae (genes within this group include Anopheles, Culex, Psorophora, Ochlerotatus, Aedes, Sabethes, Culiseta, Wyeomyia, and Haemagoggus ).
There are approximately 2700 species of mosquitoes in 35 countries. Mosquitoes can be recognized by their wings which are scaly, body slender, and have six long legs. The actual size is relatively dependent on the type, but rarely exceeds 15 mm.
At the mouth of the female mosquito forms a long proboscis to penetrate the skin of mammals (or in some cases birds or also reptiles and amphibians) to suck blood. Female mosquitoes require the presence of protein for the formation of eggs.
It should be noted that the mosquito’s diet of honey and fruit juice, which does not contain protein, so to get protein, female mosquitoes will suck blood. Male mosquitoes have differences with female mosquitoes, especially in the mouth. Male mosquitoes do not have proper or suitable mouthparts for sucking blood.
To maintain their flock, mosquitoes do metamorphosis. It develops from egg to adult. Mosquitoes have a life span of no more than two months. Female mosquitoes have a life span of 42-56 days, while male mosquitoes have 10 days.
They continue to breed, following the process of metamorphosis of mosquitoes which is summarized from the bobo.grid.id page.
1. Egg Phase
The metamorphosis phase of the mosquito starts from the egg. Mosquito eggs are produced by female mosquitoes which have been fertilized by male mosquitoes. Usually, in one egg laying, female mosquitoes can release 100 to 200 eggs. Mosquitoes will lay their eggs on the surface of the water that is calm and moist.
If the water dries up, the mosquito eggs will die before they hatch. Mosquito eggs will usually hatch within 1 to 3 days, depending on the surrounding environmental conditions.
2. Larval phase
After the mosquito egg hatches, it will enter the larval phase. The larvae of mosquitoes are usually called larvae. On the surface of the water will appear larvae which are actually the larvae of mosquito eggs.
If Sinaumed’s observes that there are small animals moving around in a pool of water. Well, that’s what is called a larva. The mosquito larvae themselves in the larval phase last for 7 to 10 days. In this phase, the larva’s body will change shape before entering the pupal phase.
3. Pupal phase
In this phase, the mosquito larva will turn into a pupa or cocoon like what happens to butterflies. In this phase, only the respiratory organs are active. Then, to become an adult mosquito, the pupa must wait for approximately 12 days. Meanwhile, in this phase there are also physical changes, namely the appearance of fine feathers and wings that are characteristic of mosquitoes.
4. Adult Phase
After going through the pupa for about 12 days, Sinaumed’s can ants as a mosquito. When the pupal skin is split open, the adult mosquito emerges. After that, they will fly to find the energy source. Male mosquitoes usually hatch earlier than female mosquitoes from their pupae.
Diseases Caused by Mosquitoes
Summarizing from the klikdokter.com page, here are the types of mosquitoes that should be avoided or better eradicated because when they get bitten, disease will appear. Here are the details.
1. Aedes Aegypti (DHF Mosquito)
The most familiar type of mosquito is the Aedes Aegypti mosquito which can transmit dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), Zika fever, chikungunya and yellow fever. It should be noted that mosquitoes that bite and suck blood are only female mosquitoes. They do this to ripen the eggs.
Usually, the Aedes Aegypti mosquito will look for food in the afternoon or at night indoors or in areas that have minimal lighting (dim and dark). This type of mosquito lays eggs and likes to be in a damp environment. Such as water reservoirs, flower vases, buckets, and so on.
Mosquito eggs survive up to one year without water. When there is enough water, the eggs will develop into larvae. Then do the metamorphosis of mosquitoes until they become adults.
2. Anopheles (Malaria Mosquito)
Anopheles mosquitoes are known as a type of mosquito capable of transmitting malaria. The body of the Anopheles mosquito has a characteristic dark brown color and some are black. This type of mosquito can carry the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria.
Meanwhile, when these parasites grow and reproduce in the human body. They will do it in liver cells and red blood cells. In fact, there are more than 430 species of Anopheles mosquitoes. However, only 30-40 types of mosquitoes can transmit malaria parasites.
3. Culex Quinquefasciatus (Dirty Water Mosquito)
The size of the Culex Quinquefasciatus mosquito is approximately 3.96 to 4.25 mm with a brown color. Meanwhile, diseases caused by Culex Quinquefasciatus mosquitoes are filariasis, west fever, and zika fever. This type of mosquito can breed in dirty water, such as ditches, puddles and septic tanks.
The cycle of the Culex Quinquefasciatus mosquito itself lasts for 7 days, starting from the egg to the adult mosquito. It should be noted that this type of mosquito is included in nocturnal mosquitoes or activities at night. Generally, it will bite humans around 20.00 to 02.00.
4. Aedes Albopictus (Forest Mosquito/Tiger Mosquito)
The type of Aedes Albopictus or Stegomyia mosquito belongs to the same genus as the mosquito that causes DHF. This mosquito is also known as the forest mosquito. It lives in tropical and subtropical countries.
The Aedes Albopictus mosquito has a body characteristic, namely black and white stripes which has earned it the nickname of a type of mosquito. Has a body size ranging from 2 to 10 mm. They only fly low (less than 200 m). o Therefore, they fly not far from the place to lay their eggs.
This type of mosquito lays its eggs in running water or static water (puddles). Meanwhile, the diseases caused by the Aedes Albopictus mosquito are yellow fever, chikungunya, DHF, and Zika fever.
5. Mansonia Uniformes (Aquatic Plant Mosquitoes)
A disease caused by mosquitoes that often breed in aquatic plants is filariassi. These animals usually live in rural areas and agricultural areas. Not only that, the Mansonia mosquito larvae will take oxygen from the surrounding aquatic plants.
How to Prevent Mosquito Bites
Launching from the klikdokter.com page, mosquitoes can be ward off in the following ways.
- Use mosquito repellent lotions that contain Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), picaridin , or IR3535.
- Wear long sleeves, pants or long skirts and socks when outdoors, especially in areas with lots of mosquitoes.
- Install an electric mosquito repellent at home if you have one. If you don’t have any, you can plant mosquito-repellent plants, such as lavender, lemongrass, or geraniums.
- Avoid outdoor activities when it gets dark (late afternoon). Night is the time when mosquitoes “circulate”.
- Do 3M (closing water reservoirs, burying trash or used goods, and draining water reservoirs) to reduce mosquito breeding.
- Sprinkle larvicidal powder in a water reservoir that has been cleaned.
- And attach mosquito netting to the ventilation holes. If there is a mosquito net, you and your little one can sleep with it.
Types of Life Cycles
Animals including mosquitoes carry out their life cycle to maintain their herd. The life cycle of animals can be grouped into two, namely the life cycle without metamorphosis and with metamorphosis. Metamorphosis itself is an animal’s life cycle in which there are stages of biological development in which changes in appearance and/or structure occur after birth or hatching.
The following describes the types of animal life cycles.
1. Animal Life Cycle Without Metamorphosis
An animal life cycle without metamorphosis is an animal life cycle that occurs without any change in form. For example in chickens and cats.
The hen produces eggs which hatch after being incubated by the mother for about 21 days. When hatched, chicks have very fine down. However, when they grow up, the chicks’ feathers will change to those of their parents. Then, adult hens will produce eggs again after fertilization occurs.
This is also experienced by cats. The female cat gives birth to kittens which will grow into adult cats. It grows similar to its mother. The baby cats when they grow up will breed again.
2. Animal Life Cycle with Metamorphosis
Animals that have a life cycle with metamorphosis will have a different physical form when they are born and when they are adults. Physical changes occur due to cell growth and cell differentiation. Or a process occurs that allows less specialized cells to become more specialized.
Metamorphosis is grouped into two categories, namely complete metamorphosis and imperfect metamorphosis. Sinaumed’s can listen to the details in the presentation below.
a. Perfect Metamorphosis
Complete metamorphosis occurs when the process of changing the body shape of an animal from small to adult. Usually animals that have a perfect life cycle go through four stages in their life cycle, namely egg-larvae-pupa (chrysalis)-adult (imago).
Quoting from the book Natural Sciences: The Life Cycle of Animals in the Surrounding Environment by Inggit Awanda, et al mentions examples of perfect metamorphosis in butterflies and mosquitoes.
The butterfly life cycle begins with the eggs laid by the female. Eggs are laid on the leaves. Then it will hatch into a larva (a young animal that will change shape as an adult). Butterfly larvae are called caterpillars.
Caterpillar food is leaves. The longer it takes, the less intense the caterpillar will eat the leaves and the movement will become slower. Then, it stays still or doesn’t move and wraps itself in thread. The threads are formed from saliva. After the whole body is wrapped in thread, it will turn into a cocoon or pupa.
When it becomes a cocoon or pupa, the caterpillar stops eating. Slowly, the cocoon becomes perfect and the butterfly will come out of the cocoon. Then. Adult butterflies will repeat the cycle from laying eggs to becoming adults.
Meanwhile, mosquitoes breed by laying eggs in standing water. Once spawn will produce hundreds of eggs. The eggs will hatch into larvae or grubs. It moves in water.
After a few days, the larvae will turn into cocoons. Then, it will turn into a mosquito. Adult mosquitoes will lay eggs again and repeat the same cycle in their life cycle.
b. Imperfect Metamorphosis
Incomplete metamorphosis is characterized by immaturity or the body parts of the animal have not yet been formed at birth. However, the animal’s physique is the same as its parent. Usually incomplete metamorphosis occurs in insects, such as cockroaches.
Adult cockroaches will lay eggs. When it hatches it becomes a young cockroach or nymph. The shape is similar to an adult cockroach. However, they are smaller and don’t have wings yet. nymphs develop and change their skin continuously before reaching adulthood.
This change of skin is called ecdysis. After adulthood, cockroach wings will grow maturely. It will also lay eggs again and repeat its life cycle again.