4 Complete Theories of the Origins of the Indonesian Nation’s Ancestors

Theory of the Origin of the Indonesian Nation’s Ancestors – Indonesia is a large nation with various ethnicities, races, religions and territories. That is why it is natural that the Indonesian nation also has many cultures. Including natural wealth, intellectual property, and ancestral wealth. From the breadth and size of this nation, has Sinaumed’s ever thought about how the theory of the origins of Indonesian ancestors existed? 

As a generation, we certainly need to know the history of this theory of the origins of Indonesian ancestors so that we can learn many things about the development of the lifestyle of our nation’s ancestors. We may be more popular with the history of our nation, starting from Dutch colonialism until finally the history of the independence of the State of Indonesia. 

In fact, long before occupying that historical period, we also have a history of how we ended up having various tribes and cultures in several regions. Starting from Sabang to Merauke, they have a long history until they finally became part of the Indonesian ethnic group. 

There are several theories of the origin of Indonesian ancestors which are popular among experts, both experts or experts from within the country or from abroad. The following are theories about the origins of Indonesian ancestors that Sinaumed’s needs to know: 

Theory of Origin of Indonesian Ancestors

There are four main theories that Sinaumed’s needs to know about the origins of the Indonesian nation’s ancestors, as follows: 

1. Greek theory

The ancestors of the Indonesian people had an excellent marine culture, namely as the inventor of the original outrigger boat model which was the hallmark of Indonesian ships at that time. The Austronesian people who were still included in the archipelago area then settled and were finally called Indonesian Malays. 

These people are the direct ancestors of the Indonesian nation today. Experts who agree with this theory include JR Logon, RH Geldern, JHC Kern, and JR Foster. The main basis for Yunan’s theory is the discovery of old axes in the Indonesian archipelago which have the same characteristics as old axes in the Southeast Asian region. 

This discovery indicates a process of human migration in the Southeast Asian region to the islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. The existence of human migration is due to the pressure factor of a stronger nation. Based on these events, the Greek theory postulates that there were three waves of arrival, namely Proto-Malay, Deutro-Malay, and Melanesian. 

The thing that underlies Yunan’s next theory is the discovery of similarities in the language used by people in the archipelago with the language in Cambodia, namely Polynesian Malay. This phenomenon indicates that the Cambodian people came from Yunan by way of going down the Mekong River. 

The flow of migration or movement is then continued when some of them continue the movement to the archipelago in the archipelago. So the similarity of the Malay language with the Cham language in Cambodia indicates a connection with the Greek plains. 

The Yunan theory is also supported by a domestic expert named Moh. Ali who stated that the theory of the origins of Indonesian ancestors was that humans came from Yunnan. This is based on allegations of displacement or migration of people in the Mongol area to the south due to pressure from other nations, especially nations that are stronger or more powerful. 

The three waves of displacement or migration in Greek theory are explained in more detail as follows:   

a. Proto Malay

Proto Malays or Old Malays are Austronesian people who came from Asia who first arrived in the archipelago around 1500 BC. The Proto Malays entered the archipelago with two routes, namely the western route through Malaysia-Sumatra and the eastern route through the Philippines – Sulawesi. 

The Proto-Malays had a culture that was higher than the previous ancient humans. The culture was new stone or it is also called the Neolithic Age, where the stones were refined. Based on Van Heekeren’s research in Kalumpang or North Sumatra, there has been a combination of the square and oval ax traditions. 

This tradition was brought by Autranesian people who came from the north or through the Philippines and Sulawesi. Sinaumed’s needs to know that the original descendants of the Proto Malay people are the Dayak and Toraja tribes who are part of the Indonesian ethnic group.  

See also  The Law and Virtue of Congregational Prayer

b. Deutero Malays

The Deutero Malays or Young Malays then succeeded in pushing and eventually assimilating with their predecessor nation, namely the proto Malays. This happened in the period around 400-300 S, namely the second wave of Indonesian ancestors came to the archipelago. 

This young Malay nation entered the archipelago with the western route by taking the route from Yunnan, more precisely the Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, the Malaysian peninsula, and finally arrived in the archipelago. This nation already had a more advanced culture than its predecessor nation (Proto Malay) because it was able to produce goods from bronze and iron. 

For example funnel axes, serpatu axes, and forms of drums. Apart from metal culture, this nation has also begun to develop a megalithic culture. For example, making menhirs or stone monuments, and terraced terraces. The descendants of the Deutro Malays or Young Malays are Javanese, Malays and Bugis who belong to the Indonesian ethnic group. 

c. Melanesoid 

The Melanesoid nation also began to appear around the Papua region at the end of the ice age 70,000 BC.

d. Primitive Nation

Prior to the arrival of Malay national groups (Proto Malay and Deutro Malay) in the archipelago, actually there were already groups of people who had already lived in this region. This group belongs to a primitive nation with a culture that is still very simple. The following is a detailed explanation of primitive peoples in the archipelago: 

Pleistocene (Ancient) Man

Early humans at that time always lived a nomadic life, aka moving from place to place with very limited abilities. Likewise with the culture they have so that their style of life cannot be followed again. Except for a few aspects, such as the technology which is still very simple or also known as paleolithic technology. 

Wedoid Tribe

The remnants of the Wedoid tribe still exist today, namely the Sakai tribe in Siak and the Kubu tribe on the border of Jambi and Palembang. This tribal group survives by collecting forest products and has a simple culture. That is why it is difficult for the Wedoid tribe to adapt to modern society. 


In Indonesia, the remains of the Negroid tribe are no longer found. But there are still in the interior of Malaysia and the Philippines from the descendants of this Negroid tribe. The tribes included in this tribe are the Semang tribe in Peninsular Malaysia and the Negrito tribe in the Philippines. 

2. Archipelago Theory

The main basis of the Nusantara theory is based on the Malay nation which is a nation with a high civilization. This assumption is based on the hypothesis that the Malay people have gone through a process of previous cultural development in their region. So in conclusion, the original Malays in the archipelago eventually grew and developed on their own without moving to the region. 

The Nusantara theory is also supported by the discovery that there is a coincidence between the Malay language and the Cambodian language. Then the discovery of Homo Soloensis and Homo Wajakensis on the island of Java is a sign that the descendants of the Malay people have competence from Java. 

Based on language differences, this happened because the languages ​​of the Austronesian peoples experienced development in this area of ​​the Archipelago with languages ​​that had developed in the Central Asian region, namely Indo-European languages.  

3. Out Of Africa Theory

Brands then migrated from Africa to Australia, which is already close to the Archipelago. This theory then reveals that African peoples migrated or made moves towards West Asia around 50,000-70,000 years ago. Around that year the earth was entering the end of the glacial age, when sea levels became shallower because the water was still in the form of glaciers. 

At that time it was possible for humans to cross the ocean using only simple boats. Migration of African peoples to Asia then split into several groups. There are groups who live temporarily in parts of the Middle East or Southwest Asia, and there are other groups who migrate along the coast of the Arabian Peninsula to India, East Asia, Australia, including Indonesia. 

This phenomenon is strengthened by the discovery of male fossils in the Lake Mungo region. In addition, there are two routes that are thought to be the areas taken by the Africans at that time, namely the route to the Nile Valley. The area crosses the Sinai Peninsula then northwards through the Arabian Levant and the route which also passes through the Red Sea.   

See also  Banking Law: Definition, Scope, Principles, Functions and Objectives

4. Out Of Taiwan Theory

The main basis of the first Out Of Taiwan theory is the absence of the same genetic pattern between the chromosomes of Indonesian humans and Chinese humans. Still based on this theory, the language used and developed in the archipelago is a language that belongs to the Austranesian language family. 

This language of the Austronesian family was used by the ancestors of the Indonesian people, especially those who settled on Formosa Island. So in terms of language it is clear that the people of the archipelago adopted the Autranesian culture and developed it to become the Indonesian nation it is today.  

Well, that’s an explanation of the theory of the origins of Indonesian ancestors. Is there a theory that Sinaumed’s believes is the theory of the origin of our nation? The assumption of the theory is of course based on data, evidence, and a lot of research. This indicates that to study history we need a lot of references in order to find pieces of the answer. 

If Sinaumed’s is interested in learning history about the theory of the origins of Indonesian ancestors or the history of other nations, then you can visit the sinaumedia collection at www.sinaumedia.com . Sinaumed’s can also find book references for history lessons at school, starting from elementary school, junior high school, high school, vocational school and equivalent, to books with a broader perspective.

The following is a recommendation for sinaumedia books about the history of the Indonesian nation that Sinaumed’s can read: Happy Learning. #Friends Without Limits. 


History of Mankind by Hendrik Van Loon was first published in 1921, and then received the John Newberry award in 1922. This book has been updated to the social media era by Robert Sullivan who is a history writer. That is why this book is the most complete human history book in terms of timeline, besides that it is also simple and fun to read for all people and ages even though it has a strong historical smell with descriptions and stories.

If Sinaumed’s had ever seen a photo of bare-chested Balinese girls in the pre-independence era, we might have thought “Could it be possible that Ken Dedes, the Queen Singhasari from a Hindu-styled kingdom, was also shirtless, even in front of her people?”

Furthermore, many questions will arise, such as whether the occurrence of the rebellion that had been proclaimed by Prince Diponegoro to trigger the Java War was a pretext for crowning himself free from the throne of the Mataram kingdom? Is it true that the Tambora eruption swept away the Islamic sultanate-style civilization until it left no trace at all? 

Is it true that the roots of Bung Karno’s thoughts are the theosophical teachings of the Masonic Order which he received from his father? “The Hidden History of the Archipelago” is a book that contains historical fragments that have been found, either because they were deliberately hidden or hidden (no research has revealed this). 

This book is then divided into four periods, namely the Hindu-Buddhist period, the Islamic period, the Colonial period, and the Post-Independence period of Indonesia. In essence, there is no ultimate truth, but the ultimate truth only exists in the sky. Likewise with historical truth because basically, history is discontinuous, as Foucault said.


Just imagine that the money used by the people of Medan is different from that used by the people of Surabaya? What if that happens in many areas in Indonesia? History records that this difference has occurred in Indonesia, namely when the circulation of the Republic of Indonesia’s Oeang was disrupted. At that time, the government issued regional money that was temporarily valid, which was then referred to as the Regional Republic of Indonesia Oeang. 

ORIDA: Oeang Republik Indonesia Daerah 1947–1949 is a book that not only serves as a reference for numismatics activists, but also frames Indonesia’s historical heritage. By presenting the story behind each regional currency, photographs and explanations, this book manages to portray how the Republic tried to maintain its sovereignty in the early days of independence. 

This book will clearly become an important foothold and guide for every nation’s child to understand Indonesian history through a collection of currencies circulating at the time.