An example of a research hypothesis is one of the things that is needed by students or students in compiling an essay. The hypothesis itself is a very important element in a research, especially for quantitative research.
Various kinds of research can be used to find examples of research hypothesis testing. For example, social humanities research or research in mathematics and natural sciences that uses hypotheses in their research.
As we understand that in writing a scientific paper, there is one part that cannot be missed, namely the research hypothesis. This one part is indeed quite crucial, including in the thesis. So, you have to write it down when you are working on your thesis.
This section is not as long as the other sections, such as the discussion or background. But even so, the hypothesis has an important role in a study.
Then what exactly is the definition of a hypothesis and an example of a research hypothesis? For more details, we will discuss examples of research hypotheses below.
What is a Research Hypothesis?
The hypothesis itself comes from the Greek words hupo and thesis. Hupo has a provisional meaning, while thesis means a statement or theory. We can conclude that the meaning of the hypothesis is a temporary statement. This is a presumption from researchers to research problems.
However, the hypothesis is not the truth, because the presumption, the hypothesis may be true or may also be wrong. The use of this hypothesis, for example, is like the research process regarding the relationship between people’s habit of disposing of garbage and the high amount of waste in Indonesia.
Based on the provisional data we have obtained, the hypothesis that emerges is that these people’s habits are related to the amount of waste. That means, people’s bad habits will affect the high amount of waste from time to time.
The hypothesis is generally interpreted as a temporary answer or guess from the problems that exist in a study. Where this hypothesis is only arranged in the type of inferential research, namely the type of research with a quantitative approach that aims to test.
Testing of a hypothesis is always through inferential statistical analysis techniques. Meanwhile, descriptive research does not require an explicit hypothesis formulation. This hypothesis can be prepared by researchers based on a strong theoretical basis and has been supported by relevant research results.
Researchers must understand the content and the steps in formulating a research hypothesis.
Definition of Research Hypothesis According to Experts
The following are some definitions of the research hypothesis according to experts, including:
1. Definition of Research Hypothesis According to Zikmund
According to Zikmund, the definition of a research hypothesis is a proportion or conjecture that has not been proven. That means, the allegation is still tentative. The conjecture explains the facts or phenomena, and possible answers to the questions in the research.
2. Definition of Nasution’s Research Hypothesis
According to Nasution, the notion of a research hypothesis is an assumption about what we observe in an attempt to understand it.
3. Definition of Research Hypothesis According to Erwan Agus Purwanto and Dyah Ratih Sulistyastuti
According to him, the notion of a research hypothesis is a provisional or tentative statement or accusation. Where the allegation contains research problems whose truth is still weak or has not been proven correct. So it must be tested again empirically.
4. Definition of Research Hypothesis According to Mundilarso
According to Mundilarso, the research hypothesis is a statement whose truth level is still weak. Therefore, it still needs to be tested using certain techniques.
Hypotheses are formulated based on theories, conjectures, personal experiences, or other people’s, general impressions, conclusions that are weak. In addition, the hypothesis can also be interpreted as a statement about the condition of the population which will be verified using data or information collected through the sample.
5. Understanding the Research Hypothesis According to Kerlinger
According to Kerlinger, the definition of a research hypothesis is a statement that explains the alleged relationship between two or more variables. According to him, a hypothesis is always in the form of a statement sentence. This guess will relate in general or specifically one variable to another.
Types of Research Hypotheses
Hypotheses can be divided into two types, namely working or alternative hypotheses and also the null hypothesis. The following is a full explanation:
1. Working Hypothesis or Alternatives
The working hypothesis or what is commonly called the alternative hypothesis is usually symbolized by H1. So, this working hypothesis has a function, namely to state the relationship between variables X and Y. This hypothesis can also show that there is a difference between the two groups.
In addition, this hypothesis also explains the existence of a relationship between variables and other variables. For example, there is a relationship between the level of poverty and the availability of job vacancies.
2. Null Hypothesis
While the null hypothesis will generally be symbolized by Ho. The other name for this hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis. Why is it named that way? Because this type of hypothesis is often used in quantitative research that requires statistical calculations.
Likewise the opposite with Ho’s hypothesis explaining that there is no relationship or influence between variables and other variables. For example, there is no relationship between a student’s level of education and job opportunities.
Types of Hypotheses Based on Their Forms
Next are the various research hypotheses according to their forms. Differentiated into three types, this hypothesis has its own meaning based on the type.
The various hypotheses are closely related to the type of research you will be doing. So understand well each kind. The following is a full explanation.
1. Relational or Associative Hypothesis
This one hypothesis is interpreted as a temporary answer to the relationship between two or more variables. So that this hypothesis is formulated based on the formulation of an associative problem or describes a relationship. As in another sense, the associative hypothesis explicitly or clearly shows the relationship between two or more variables.
Quoted from the sociological.com page, an example of a research hypothesis is that people who are married will have a higher level of self-confidence than people who are not married.
This example shows that if the relationship between marital status and a person’s level of self-confidence. Not only that, the hypothesis is also classified as a rational hypothesis because the relationship between the two variables is described explicitly.
By reading the relational research hypothesis, you will easily find out that there is a relationship between the two variables. In addition, you will also find out what variables are used in a study.
2. Descriptive Hypothesis
In contrast to the associative hypothesis, this descriptive hypothesis actually shows the relationship between variables explicitly. Thus, the relationship will tend to be hidden, not clear like the research hypothesis.
So, this descriptive hypothesis will only give an overview of the research sample. For example, half of the population of Java Island work as farmers. Another example is that students who are active in organizations have a high GPA.
Quoted from the sociological.com page, in the first example the research variables found were the number of residents and their work. While the variable from the second example is the level of activeness in the organization with GPA.
3. Comparative Hypothesis
The last hypothesis is the comparative hypothesis. According to Sugiyono, this comparative hypothesis is a statement that shows an estimate of the value in one or more variables in different samples.
Meanwhile, according to Ridwan, the comparative hypothesis is formulated to provide answers to differentiating problems. In simple terms, the comparative hypothesis is a tentative conjecture of the comparative formulation of the problem. That means the variables are the same, it’s just that the sample, population, and conditions are different.
How to Develop a Hypothesis
It should be understood that the formulation of the research hypothesis does not appear suddenly without the basis of a theory or scientific study.
The research hypothesis is not formulated simply to follow the assumptions or assumptions of the researcher, although the researcher’s assumptions can be a starting point in theoretical studies and also predictions of future research results.
So, the research hypothesis is formulated not only following the conjectures or assumptions of the researchers, but also derived from the elaboration of the theoretical basis that was prepared previously.
This theory connects the existence of the independent variable with the dependent variable. Therefore, theoretical studies as well as relevant research findings serve to explain problems and enforce predictions on answers to research questions.
As said by Azwar (1999), that in formulating a hypothesis, there are two ways. The first way is to read and review the theories or concepts that discuss the research variables and their relationships.
This method is often called the deductive thinking process. Then the second way is to read and review the results or findings of previous studies that are relevant to the research problem. This is called an inductive thinking process. After reviewing the theories or findings from the research results. Researchers can formulate research hypotheses.
The results of the theoretical studies or the findings of their research are the provision or basis for researchers in developing their hypotheses. Therefore, usually the hypothesis will be placed after the researcher examines the theory, concept, or research findings, namely at the end of chapter II of a research report.
This hypothesis must be verified through statistical tests using appropriate analytical techniques. Where the hypothesis that has been prepared needs to be proven true by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. The choice of this statistical analysis technique depends on several things, namely the type of research, research objectives, and also the type of data scale on each variable.
Example of a Research Hypothesis Based on Its Form
According to Sugiyono quoted from the asikbelajar.com page, examples of research hypotheses based on their form include:
1. The Associative Research Hypothesis
Associative problem formulation: Is there a significant relationship between height and goods sold? Then, the hypothesis is that there is a positive and also significant relationship between the height of the shop assistant and the goods that have been sold. Meanwhile, the statistical hypothesis is as follows:
Ho : p = 0, 0 means there is no relationship.
Ha : p ≠ 0 , “not equal to zero” means greater or less (-) than zero means there is a relationship,
p = correlation value in the hypothesized formulation.
2. Comparative Research Hypothesis
Formulation of the problem: How is the work productivity of employees at PT X when compared to employees at PT Y?
1) Ho: There is no difference in work productivity between employees at PT X and employees at PT Y; or there are some similarities in work productivity between employees of PT X and employees of Y, or
2) Ho: Employee productivity at PT X is greater than or equal to (≥) employees at PT Y (“greater or equal to)” = at least) .
3) Ho: The productivity of employees at PT X is smaller or equal to (≤) employees at PT Y (“smaller or equal to” = the largest).
Ha: Employee productivity at PT X is greater (or smaller) than employees at PT Y.
Ha: Employee productivity at PT X is smaller than (<) employees at PT Y.
Ha: Employee productivity at PT X greater than (≥) employees at PT Y.
The statistical hypothesis:
Ho : u1 = u2
Ha : u1 ≠ u2
Ho : u1 ≥ u2
Ha : u1 < u2
3. Descriptive Research Hypothesis
Descriptive problem formulation: how long does brand X incandescent lamp last?
The lamp life for brand X is 600 hours (Ho), because the lamp life in the sample is expected not to differ much from the lamp power in the population.
The durability of X brand incandescent lamps is not the same as 600 hours. That means, brand X’s incandescent durability is greater or less than 600 hours.
Statistical Hypothesis (only exists if based on sample data)
Ho : u = 600
Ha : u ≠ 600
u : Is the average value of the population that is hypothesized or estimated through the sample
This is an explanation of examples of research hypotheses that can be applied to the research being carried out. Hope it is useful.