When we were still in school, of course we were all familiar with counseling or counseling. Since school, the practice of guidance and counseling has become one of the important things for students and also the school itself. This is because an understanding is obtained that later the understanding of guidance and counseling has a very broad scope. Besides being able to play a big role in being an agent of good, counseling guidance can also provide other benefits.
This counseling refers to the goal of realizing good behavior for young people or students obtained from their counseling guidance teacher so that they have a good personality for their future. The guidance and counseling teacher’s task is to re-polish the personality of their students. At the school level, counseling guidance will assist students in dealing with and solving various kinds of problems or things that exist outside of teaching and learning practices. So it is not surprising that many students are then directed to go to counseling when they have problems, whether they are in school or outside school.
The goal itself is that this counseling can support the future achievements of its students, in addition to the educational goals and also the teaching that students get from school. Even so, this practice also needs to be balanced with students’ efforts to maximize their respective abilities in solving problems. Then, what is the true meaning of guidance counseling?
What is Counseling Guidance?
The definition of counseling guidance or what is often shortened to BK is a series of activities in the form of assistance carried out by an expert in face-to-face counseling, either individually or in groups by providing additional knowledge. It is hoped that this additional knowledge will become a way out to overcome and resolve problems experienced by counseling, namely in a continuous and systematic way. Counseling guidance has also been regulated in the Minister of Education and Culture Decree No. 025/1995 regarding Teacher Functional Guidelines and Credit Points.
Here it is stated that guidance and counseling are assistance services aimed at students, both individuals and groups, so that they are independent and can still develop optimally. Not only that, the guidance provided also includes social, career, study, and other guidance through a variety of services and also support activities based on applicable norms. In essence, counseling guidance is a process of interaction between the counselor and the counselee. Either directly or indirectly in order to help counselees so they can develop the potential that exists within them or be able to solve the problems they are experiencing.
In addition, counseling guidance can also be referred to as one of the efforts that are systematic, objective, sustainable, and logical, as well as programmed which is carried out by counselors to provide counselee development facilities so that they can achieve independence and achieve a better life.
Definition of Guidance Counseling According to Experts
The following are some definitions of counseling guidance from experts. Let’s get to know what guidance counseling is in more depth through the explanation below:
1. Abu Ahmadi (1991)
According to Abu Ahmadi, counseling is assistance given to individuals or groups so that with the potential they have, they are able to develop it optimally by understanding themselves, understanding their surroundings, and also overcoming obstacles to determine better future plans. .
2. Priyatno and Erman Amti (2004)
According to them both, guidance is a process of providing assistance carried out by an expert to a person or several individuals, be they children, adolescents, or adults. So that people who are guided can develop their own abilities better. In addition, they also hope to be independent by utilizing individual strengths as well as existing facilities and can be developed based on applicable norms.
3. Bimo Walgito (2004)
Meanwhile, Bimo Walgito said that guidance is assistance and assistance given to an individual or a group of individuals to achieve prosperity in their lives.
4. Syamsu Yusuf (2009)
According to Syamsu Yusuf, counseling is the process of providing counselor assistance to individuals or counselees on an ongoing basis so that they can understand the potential that exists within themselves and also their environment, accept themselves, develop themselves optimally, and adapt positively. In addition, the counselee is also expected to be constructive towards the demands of the norms of life both religiously and culturally. So that they can achieve a more meaningful life, both personally and socially.
5. Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture
According to him, guidance and counseling is a systematic, logical, objective, as well as continuous and programmed effort carried out by counselors or guidance and counseling teachers. This BK teacher aims to facilitate the development of students or counselees to achieve independence in their respective lives.
According to Tohirin, guidance and counseling is a process of assistance provided to individuals or groups of counselors or mentors through face-to-face or reciprocal relationships between the two. So that the counselee has the ability or skill to see and find the problem. The counselee is also expected to have the ability to solve his own problems.
The Purpose of Counseling Guidance
After understanding the various meanings of guidance and counseling, it is certain that in its implementation, this guidance and counseling will be carried out without being separated from the goals to be achieved. Then, what are the objectives of this counseling guidance? Let’s find out the answer below:
a. Planning study completion activities, career development, and also the lives of students in the future.
b. Adapting to the educational environment and also the community environment.
c. Knowing the difficulties and obstacles faced by students in their studies, adjustment to the educational environment that exists in society.
d. Developing obstacles and difficulties faced by students in learning systems, adjustments to the educational environment and society.
e. Develop all potentials by using the strengths possessed by students more optimally.
f. Having awareness to describe the appearance and recognize the specificity that is in himself.
g. Can carry out skills or learning techniques effectively.
h. Can develop a positive attitude, such as describing people they admire.
Techniques in Counseling and Explanation
Below are the techniques that exist in counseling, including:
1. Serving or Attending
According to Carkhuff (1983), personally serving counselees is one of the efforts made by counselors in giving total attention to counselees. This is shown through gestures and facial expressions.
This empathy technique is closely related to serving. Where empathy in counseling guidance means the counselor’s ability to be able to feel and also put himself in the client’s position by paying attention to the client’s posture and also his facial expressions. Then listen very carefully to what the client is telling and understand it well.
The next technique in guidance and counseling is reflection, where this reflection is an attempt by counselors to get more information about what clients are feeling by reflecting back on the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of clients.
Exploration is the skill of counselors to explore the infrastructure as well as the client’s mind. This exploratory technique allows clients to speak freely without fear, threat, or pressure.
5. Capture Key Messages
This one technique requires the counselor to be able to capture the main message conveyed by the client. This is very important and needed, because sometimes clients express their thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a convoluted, circular, and too long way.
6. Ask to Open Conversation
This technique is one way that can be used to provoke further conversation. The trick is that the client begins to ask questions, but does not start with the word why, why, and so on, but uses words like these: “what”, “how”, “is there”, “may”, or “can”.
7. Ask Closed
The closed question technique is a form of question that is often answered briefly by clients such as yes or no. Where this one technique is used to gather information, clarify and clarify things, and stop client chatter from going too far.
8. Minimal Push
This technique is one of the efforts of a counselor so that his client is always involved in the conversation and also opens himself up to the counselor. This encouragement is said with the words “then”, “oh yes”, “and”, and so on with the aim of making the client more enthusiastic in conveying his problem.
In the interpretation technique, the counselor will use counseling theories and adapt them to the client’s problems. This is done to avoid subjectivity in counseling relationships.
This technique requires counselors to have the ability to direct clients to participate fully in the counseling process so that clients are willing to do something directed by the counselor.
Benefits of Counseling Guidance
Why guidance and counseling is needed in schools? Guidance and counseling is given to students in schools with the consideration that these students can benefit, including:
1. Creating a positive view of yourself with a feeling of being happier, better, and also calm and comfortable.
2. Reducing the level of stress faced by students due to quite a lot of assignments and learning loads or because of other problems they have to face.
3. Help students to better understand themselves or others. So it will create a close and effective kinship.
4. Help students to be more able to develop themselves. So that it can use the potential that exists in itself optimally in the future.
Counseling Guidance Functions in Schools
Apart from being able to provide quite important benefits for students, guidance and counseling also functions as follows:
1. Comprehension Function
Through guidance and counseling, students will be helped to better understand who and how they are. So that they can recognize their potential or the environment they live in.
2. Development Function
BK will help students to develop what is their potential. So that later can be useful for the future. In carrying out the development function, counseling is provided through systematic and continuous guidance, facilities that support and create an environment that remains conducive.
3. Preventive Function
The preventive function is to provide anticipation for various kinds of problems that may occur and be experienced by students and then make efforts to prevent them.
4. Facilitation Function
BK will provide various facilities for students to achieve growth and development as optimal as possible, aligned, harmonious, and also balanced in all aspects of the student’s self.