What is Corruption? Causes and Effects

The definition of corruption along with its causes and ways to overcome corruption is something that is very interesting to study. As you already know, corruption is a common practice in Indonesia. Efforts to eradicate corrupt practices are still being maximized today.

Even so, it seems that the ingrained habit of corruption has yet to be completely eradicated. Where, corruption is a big homework for this country. In addition to strict enforcement officers to eliminate corruption, an individual mentality that is anti-corruption is also needed. In fact, it is not only the Indonesian state that has been undermined by corruption at almost all levels.

Many other countries, especially developing countries, are experiencing the same thing. Then, what exactly is corruption? What causes this practice to grow and mushroom and hard to get rid of? The following is a discussion related to corruption, starting from the meaning of corruption, the causes of corruption, to how to deal with corruption.

Definition of Corruption

You can find the definition of corruption in various perspectives. As previously mentioned, the notion of corruption can occur from any aspect of life, not only in government. As a result, corruption also develops with so many definitions. Internationally there is no one definition that is the only reference in the whole world regarding what is meant by corruption.

Corruption is a symptom of society that you can find almost anywhere. The word corruption itself comes from the Latin word corruptio or corruptus which means damage, ugliness, depravity, dishonesty, can be bribed, and immoral chastity.

Where, the word then appears in English and French, namely “Corruption” which means abusing authority to benefit himself. Meanwhile, based on a complete dictionary called Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, that the notion of corruption is an invitation from a political official with improper consideration, for example a bribe to commit a violation of duty.

Meanwhile, based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), states that the notion of corruption is the misappropriation or misuse of state funds (companies, foundations, organizations, and so on) for personal gain or for other people. Meanwhile, in a broad sense, the notion of corruption is the abuse of official office for personal gain.

Where, all forms of government/government are prone to corruption in practice. The severity of corruption itself varies from the lightest in the form of the use of influence and support to give and receive help, to the serious corruption that is formalized and so on.

Not only that, as quoted from kppu.go.id, based on a legal perspective, the definition of corruption has clearly been explained in 13 articles in Law no. 31 of 199 which has been amended by Law no. 20 of 2001 concerning the Eradication of Corruption Crimes. According to these articles, corruption is formulated into 30 forms or types of criminal acts of corruption. These articles explain in detail the actions that can be subject to criminal sanctions due to corruption.

The 30 forms or types of corruption can basically be categorized into various groups, including the following:

  • State financial losses
  • Bribery bribe
  • Embezzlement in office
  • Extortion
  • Conflict of interest in procurement
  • Cheating
  • Gratification

Definition of Corruption Based on Experts

The following are a number of definitions of corruption according to experts. Well, what are they? Let’s get to know the full explanation below.

1. Based on Syed Hussein Alatas

In the book Corruption and the Disting of Asia it states that actions that can be categorized as corruption are bribery, nepotism, extortion, and abuse of trust or position for personal gain.

2. Based on Robert Klitgaard

The definition of corruption is behavior that deviates from the official duties of a state office due to status gains or money involving personal (individuals, close family, own groups, and others) or violating the rules of implementation of a number of personal behavior.

3. Based on Jeremy Pope

According to Jeremy Pope, corruption involves behavior on the part of public sector officials, be they politicians or civil servants. Where, they unfairly and illegally enrich themselves and those close to them to abuse the authority entrusted to them.

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4. Based on Nurdjanah

The definition of corruption is a term that comes from the Greek language, namely corruptio which means an act that is not good, bad, fraudulent, can be bribed, immoral, deviates from holiness, violates religious, mental and legal norms.

5. Based on Juniadi Suwartojo

The definition of corruption is the behavior or actions of a person or more that violates applicable norms by using or abusing power or opportunity through the procurement process, determining receipts or providing facilities or other services carried out in the activities of receiving and disbursing money or assets, money fraud or wealth as well as in permits or other services with the aim of personal or group gain. So that it directly or indirectly harms the financial interests of the state and society.

6. Based on Haryatmoko

The definition of corruption is an attempt to use the ability to intervene because of its position to misuse information, decisions, influence, money, or wealth for the benefit of oneself.

7. Based on Mubrayanto

The definition of corruption is a political problem more than economics that touches on the legitimacy or legitimacy of government in the eyes of the younger generation, educated elites and officials in general. The consequence that arises from this corruption is reduced support to the government from elite groups at the provincial and district levels.

Causes of Corruption

When people’s consumptive behavior and the political system are still aimed at material things, this can increase the occurrence of money games which are the cause of corruption. Where, corruption itself is an act that will never break if there is no change in viewing wealth. The more people who misinterpret wealth, the more people who commit corruption.

There are 2 (two) main factors that cause corruption, namely internal factors and external factors. So, what causes these two factors? Let’s find out together the explanation below.

1. Internal Factors

Internal factors are one of the factors that cause corruption that arise from a person’s self. It is generally characterized by the existence of human nature which belongs to 2 (two) aspects, including:

Based on Individual Behavior Aspects

There are several aspects of individual behavior, including the following:

The Nature of Greed or Greed

Greed or greed is one of the human traits that always feels lacking with what it has or it can also be said as someone who has a lack of gratitude. Greedy or greedy people will have a desire to increase wealth and wealth by taking actions that harm others, for example corruption.

Less Strong Morale

People who do not have strong morals will certainly be easily tempted to commit acts of corruption. One of the causes of this corruption is a milestone for a person’s self-reliance in his life. If a person does not have strong or inconsistent morals, it can make it easy for outside influences to enter into him.

Consumptive Lifestyle

Lifestyle is certainly one of the causes of corruption caused by internal factors. If someone has a consumptive lifestyle and their income is less than that consumption, this will be a cause of corruption. Surely this is very closely related to one’s income.

Based on Social Aspects

Based on the social aspect, a person can commit acts of corruption. This can happen because of encouragement and support from the family even though it is personal that the person does not want to do it. The environment in this case actually gives encouragement to commit corruption, instead of giving punishment.

2. External Factors

External factors that cause corruption will be more inclined to outside influences which include various aspects including:

Aspects of Public Attitudes Against Corruption

the cause of corruption in this aspect is when the values ​​in society are conducive to corruption. People do not realize that the main losers or victims of corruption are themselves. In addition, people are also less aware if they are involved in corruption.

Corruption can certainly be prevented and eradicated if you take an active role in the agenda for preventing and eradicating corruption. Therefore, there is a need for socialization and education regarding awareness in responding to corruption for the community.

Economic Aspect

The economic aspect is almost the same as consumptive behavior, there are internal factors. The difference, here is more emphasis on a person’s income not on his consumptive nature. With insufficient income, it can be a cause for someone to commit corruption.

Political Ace

In the political aspect, corruption can occur because of political interests and gain and maintain power. In general, in the political aspect this can form unbroken chains of causes of corruption from one person to another.

Organizational Aspects

In the organizational aspect, the causes of corruption can occur due to several things, for example, lack of exemplary leadership, lack of the right organizational culture, lack of proper accountability systems, and weak management control systems and weak supervision.

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The Impact of Corruption on a Country

Corruption is an act that is very detrimental to the country. Corruption causes a number of negative impacts, including the following:

  • Slowing down of a country’s economic growth
  • Increasing poverty
  • Decreasing investment
  • Increasing income inequality
  • Lowering the level of happiness of the people of a country

In addition, corruption has a very large negative impact on Indonesian society from various walks of life. Starting from the impact on the economy, social, government bureaucracy, politics and democracy, law enforcement, defense and security, as well as the environment. The following are some of the impacts of corruption on the economy by covering:

Productivity Decline

Sluggish economic growth and the absence of investment causes productivity to decline. This is what hinders the development of the industrial and production sector to be able to develop even better.

Sluggish Economic Growth and Investment

Within the private sector, corruption increases the cost of commerce because of losses from illegal payments, management costs in negotiations with corrupt officials, and the risk of cancellation of agreements or investigations.

Low Quality of Goods and Services for the Public

Damaged roads, overturned trains, collapsed bridges, rice not fit to eat, explosions of gas cylinders, inadequate public transportation, fuel damaged people’s vehicles, collapsed school buildings are the reality of the low quality of goods and services as a result of corruption.

Reducing Revenue From the Tax Sector

About 70% of the APBN is financed by taxes. Where, Income Tax (Pph) and
Value Added Tax (VAT) are one type of tax that contributes the most. The decline in income that occurred from the tax sector was exacerbated by the fact that many unscrupulous employees and officials were playing for personal gain and to enrich themselves.

Increasing State Debt

Corruption can occur in Indonesia, this can increase foreign debt to swell. Therefore, every citizen is prohibited from committing acts of corruption.

Types of Corruption

Quoted from the book “Theory & Practice of Anti-Corruption Education” based on a study conducted by Transparency International Indonesia, corrupt practices include manipulation of state funds, bribery and extortion, money politics and business collusion. Basically, corrupt practices can be grouped into various types, including the following:

1. Bribery (Bribery)

Bribery is a payment in the form of money or the like that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship. Thus, in the context of bribery, corruption is the act of paying or receiving bribes. In general, bribery is carried out with the aim of facilitating or facilitating action matters, especially when they have to go through a formal bureaucratic process.

2. Embezzlement or Embezzlement

Embezzlement and theft are acts of embezzlement or stealing public money committed by government employees, the private sector or bureaucratic officials.

3. Fraud

Fraud can be defined as an economic crime in the form of lies, deception, and behavior. This type of corruption itself is an organized economic crime and generally involves officials.

In this way, fraudulent activities are also relative activities. Meanwhile, fraudulent activities are relatively more dangerous and have a wider scale than bribery and embezzlement.

4. Blackmail (Exotic)

Corruption is a form of extortion, which is a type of corruption that involves officials by forcing them to gain profits in exchange for services provided. There are usually extortion carried out by from above, including carried out by service providers and residents.

5. Favoritism (favoritsm)

Favoritism is commonly known as favoritism which means that it is an act of abuse of power which involves an act of privatization of resources.

How to Eradicate Corruption in Indonesia

Reporting from the website of the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of PUPR, in the guide to eradicating corruption in an easy and fun way by the KPK RI, there are 3 (three) strategies that can be implemented to eradicate corruption, including:

1. Repressive

The repressive strategy is carried out by means of the Corruption Eradication Commission to ensnare corruptors to court, reading out the charges, and presenting witnesses along with musical instruments to strengthen them.

2. System Repair

In the system improvement strategy, the KPK provides recommendations to related ministries or institutions to take corrective steps. Not only that, this strategy is also carried out through the arrangement of public services through coordination and supervision of prevention as well as encouraging transparency of state administrators. In order to encourage transparency of state administrators, the KPK accepts LHKPN and gratuities.

3. Education and Campaigns

Education and campaigns are carried out as part of prevention and have a strategic role in eradicating corruption. Through this education and campaign, the KPK raises public awareness about the impact of corruption, invites the public to be involved in the anti-corruption movement and builds anti-corruption behavior and society. These educational and campaign activities should be carried out as part of prevention which is carried out not only for students and the general public.

So, those were some explanations regarding corruption and several other things. Hopefully the discussion above can be helpful and useful for readers.

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