Anxiety that arises within is a natural thing to happen, because anxiety or feeling worried is a form of emotional outburst when you are feeling stressed or depressed. This situation often occurs in several ways, for example when you are about to face an exam or job interview or have to make an important decision that involves many people.
Even so, you still need to pay attention to the anxiety that you experience. The reason is, the feeling of worry that cannot be controlled and ends in fear without cause is not something that is natural. It could be, you are suffering from an anxiety disorder called anxiety.
So, what is meant by anxiety? In order to find out about discussions related to anxiety, you need to pay attention to the complete discussion about anxiety. Starting from the understanding of anxiety, the characteristics of anxiety, to the types of anxiety. Curious what it is? Let’s find out together.
A. The definition of anxiety is
Anxiety is a feeling of discomfort and fear for no reason or a fear that is not clear when the situation is not supported. Anxiety is also known as anxiety disorder or anxiety disorder.
Of course, everyone has experienced anxiety in their life. For example, before appearing in public or before making a presentation or interview. If the anxiety is justified, then it is a natural thing. However, if anxiety is often experienced for no apparent reason, it could be a sign of an anxiety disorder.
B. Characteristics of Anxiety
Anxiety has several characteristics that you need to recognize, including the following:
1. Hands or other members are shaking
2. It’s hard to talk
3. Breath fast or short
4. The heart becomes pounding
5. Fingertips become cold
6. Choking sensation
7. Stomach ache
In addition, anxiety patients may also experience behavioral and cognitive changes. Examples of cognitive behavioral disorders are avoidance and dependence on people. Meanwhile, cognitive changes that occur such as having the belief that something bad will happen, being sensitive to body sensitivity, difficulty concentrating, and other disturbances.
C. Causes of anxiety
Reporting from the National Health Service, states that the cause of anxiety has not been found with certainty. However, there are a number of factors that have been proven to cause anxiety disorders or anxiety, including the following:
1. Excessive activity on the brain
2. The hormones serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain are not balanced
3. Have a family history
4. Having a traumatic experience
5. Have a painful chronic disease, such as arthritis
D. Symptoms and Signs of Anxiety
Actually, the symptoms and signs of anxiety depend on the type of anxiety disorder the sufferer is experiencing. Are as follows:
1. General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
A number of symptoms and signs that appear, if you have this type of anxiety disorder, include:
a. Easily tired
b. Constantly restless
c. Difficulty concentrating
d. Empty minded
e. Easy to get angry
f. Easily offended
g. Muscle cramp
h. Difficulty controlling feelings of worry
i. Experiencing sleep disturbances, including feeling sleep deprived
2. Panic Disorder
The following are a number of symptoms and signs of a person experiencing panic disorder, including:
a. Feeling uneasy
b. Constant panic for no apparent reason
c. Heart palpitations or increased heart rate
d. Shortness of breath or hunting
e. Sweating and shaking
f. Hands and feet feel cramps, tingling to the point of numbness
g. Difficulty controlling fear or anxiety
h. Strained muscles
3. Social Phobia
Here are some of the symptoms and signs of social phobia, including:
a. Excessive nervousness during social interactions
b. Experiencing intense anxiety for days, weeks, and even months.
c. An intense fear of how others will judge your feelings, especially people you don’t know.
d. Avoid face-to-face encounters with opponents.
e. Choose silence or hide to avoid people.
f. Withdrawing from social activities.
g. Face becomes red when asked to speak in front of many people.
h. Short or rushed breaths
i. Stomach ache
k. Trembling at heart
l. The chest becomes congested
n. Feeling dizzy or dizzy
4. Specific Phobia
As the name suggests, someone who has a specific phobia will have a very great fear of certain objects, objects or situations. Someone with this condition might scream or cry hysterically when the things they are afraid of are in front of them. A number of physical and emotional symptoms that may be experienced by people with specific phobias, include the following:
a. The heartbeat and breathing become irregular when they see something that is feared.
b. Excessive fear to the point of sweating profusely.
c. Sudden nausea
d. Feeling angry when in a place or situation where there are things that are feared.
e. Strongly avoids everything related to things that are feared.
f. Someone who is in this condition will suddenly become limp. When the perceived fear has reached its peak.
There may be other symptoms and signs of anxiety disorders that are not described above. If you have concerns about these signs and symptoms, then you can consult a doctor.
E. Types of Anxiety
Once you know about anxiety. Following are some explanations regarding the types of anxiety, including:
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Someone with generalized anxiety disorder can feel excessively anxious and worried about everything from work to health to other simple things, such as interacting with other people. Anxiety that arises due to generalized anxiety disorder can be felt every day and persists for more than 6 (six) months.
As a result, sufferers will find it difficult to carry out daily activities and work. In addition to the emergence of disturbing feelings of anxiety, sufferers of generalized anxiety disorder can also feel tired, tense, nauseous, headaches, difficulty concentrating, shortness of breath, and insomnia.
Phobia is a type of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to have excessive fear and tend to be irrational towards certain objects, animals or situations that do not cause fear in many people. Someone who has a phobia can experience panic attacks or intense fear when they see an object or are in a place that can trigger a phobia.
For example, spiders, blood, being in a crowd, high places, dark places, or closed rooms. Therefore, people with phobias will generally do everything they can to avoid things or situations that are scary.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder
People with social anxiety disorder or also called social phobia have extraordinary anxiety or fear of the social environment or situations where they have to interact with other people. People with this disorder will always feel watched and valued by others. As well as fear and excessive embarrassment when in a crowd. These things make sufferers always try to avoid situations that require them to meet or interact with many people.
4. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder can occur in someone who has experienced a traumatic event or is in a dangerous, life-threatening situation. For example, living in conflict or war areas, affected by natural disasters, or even victims of violence.
It is often difficult for someone with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder to forget the experience of trauma. Whether it crosses your mind or when you dream, then you feel guilty, isolated, and find it difficult to socialize with other people. Sometimes someone who has a disorder like that can also experience insomnia to depression.
5. Panic Disorder
Anxiety and panic attacks cause this disorder to appear at any time and occur suddenly and repeatedly. When these panic symptoms appear, sufferers of panic disorder can generally feel several other symptoms. For example palpitations, dizziness, cold sweats, and the body feels weak and shaking.
A person with panic disorder cannot predict when this disorder will appear or what triggers it. Therefore, not a few of those with panic disorder avoid themselves from the social environment for fear of an attack, so panic can appear in public places.
6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Someone who has Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has a tendency to do everything repeatedly to relieve anxiety that arises in their own minds. For example, washing hands which must be done 3 times a day because he thinks his hands still feel dirty. This disorder is difficult to control and is sedentary. And can make a relapse at any time. So that it interferes with the patient’s daily activities.
F. How to Overcome Anxiety
There are 2 (two) ways you can deal with anxiety, including the following:
Psychotherapy or also known as speech therapy or psychological counseling is one way you can do to overcome anxiety. There are various types of psychotherapy, but the one most often used to treat anxiety is cognitive behavioral therapy.
This therapy focuses on the relationship between problems, behaviors, and thought patterns. In this therapy, you will be asked to open up by telling the therapist about all the complaints you are facing.
There’s no need to feel embarrassed or worried, because the therapist will treat you in a non-judgmental way and of course keep all your secrets. Guided by this therapist, you will be invited to find the root of the problem you want to solve and the final goal you want to achieve.
The doctor will prescribe a certain number of drugs to relieve the symptoms of anxiety that you are experiencing. Here are a number of drugs that doctors often prescribe to treat anxiety, including:
a. Antidepressant drugs, for example paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, escitalopram, and citalopram.
b. Anti-anxiety drugs, for example alprazolam or xanax, benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide or librium, clonazepam or klonopine, lorazepam, and diazepam or valium.
In addition, the doctor will prescribe other drugs according to the condition of the anxiety sufferer. So please consult a doctor for more information.
G. Anxiety Risk Factors
Actually, the risk factors for each type of anxiety are very diverse. Likewise with the risk factors for anxiety which are also quite varied. The following are a number of common risk factors that can cause all types of anxiety, including:
A child who has experienced sexual abuse or witnessed a traumatic event in the past is at increased risk of developing anxiety as an adult. Not only children, adults too.
2. Genetic History
Having blood relatives, especially parents and siblings can also increase the risk of developing anxiety disorders or anxiety.
3. Certain Personalities
Someone with a certain personality type will also be more susceptible to anxiety disorders than others.
4. Mental Disorders
Someone with a mental disorder, for example depression will also be at risk of experiencing anxiety.
5. Users of Drugs and Alcohol
The use of alcohol and illegal drugs can cause or even exacerbate anxiety disorders or anxiety experienced by a person.
6. Stress Due to Illness
Having a serious health condition or illness can also trigger feelings of excessive fear and anxiety. Especially regarding medical expenses, chances of recovery, and how to deal with it in the future. Apart from being sick, you can also experience anxiety due to the loss of loved ones, economic pressure, and even losing your job.