Understanding Spatial Interactions Affecting Population Distribution

Every part of the earth has space. Space in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) is defined as the gap between two (rows) of pillars or between four pillars (under the house’s vault); a cavity bounded or bounded by a plane; the boundless void, the place of all that is; inner compartment (durai, petai); share; real and imaginary space in the show on stage.

Launching from the Detik.com page, space is defined as a place on the surface of the earth, both in whole and in part that is used as a place for living beings to live. All living things and various organisms depend on their lives in the spaces on earth.

These spaces have boundaries that influence life on the surface of the earth. Here is the basic concept of the space formulated by Yulia Siska in between.

  • Space is a place on the surface of the earth.
  • Space is not only limited to air, but also the lowest layer of the atmosphere that affects the earth’s surface.
  • Space can include a body of water on the surface of the earth, such as seas, rivers, and lakes. While under the surface of the earth there is water, and the soil reaches a certain depth.
  • Space includes various layers of soil and rock, which are the resources for life.
  • Space is a place for humans to interact.

The spatial dimension used to view nature as a place and as a provider of various potential resources. Space can also be interpreted as a spatial dimension, which is the place where various natural events occur both in social and historical forms in the process of time.

Understanding Spatial Interaction

In Nursid Sumaatmadja’s view, space is defined as a place on the surface of the earth either in its entirety or only partially that is used by living beings to live. Space can also be interpreted as a container for all the activities of humans, plants, and animals on the surface of the earth.

Launching from Kompas.com, space is not only limited to the air that is in contact with the earth’s surface. However, it is also the lowest layer of the atmosphere that gives influence to the surface of the earth. Space also includes the waters found on the surface of the earth, namely seas, lakes, rivers, or those under the surface of the earth (groundwater) up to a certain depth.

Quoting from Education Standards, the concept of space is a concept that has a focus on the location and distribution of space, as well as the way people organize and manage the space they live in. The characteristics of an environment and a human being are influenced by the location where they live.

Based on the Tirto.id page, the interaction between spaces is the relationship between a region and other regions. Relationships that are established mutually need each other. The forms of interaction between spaces have an influence on the occurrence of inetaxy between spaces.

In the book “Pasti Bisa Social Science for SMP/MTS Class VII” by Ganesha Operation, it is mentioned that the interaction between spaces is used as a place to live and interact between individuals and other individuals, individuals with groups, or one group with another group.

In that space, they interact with each other and influence each other. One of the factors that affect the interaction between spaces is the existence of regions that complement each other from the differences in the potential of natural resources between regions.

Interaction between spaces can also be interpreted as a way of managing spaces based on their potential and problems and the connection of a space with the surrounding spaces. Interaction between spaces can take the form of the movement of people, goods, or information from the original area to the destination area or from one area to another.


Conditions for the Occurrence of Anti-Space Interactions

The occurrence of interaction between spaces or spatial interaction is influenced by several conditions that have been summarized on the Kompas.com website as follows.

1. Complementarity _

One space and another need each other so that they complement each other. The thing that is a magnetic link between one region and another is different commodities.

2. Intervening Opportunity

An opportunity between is interpreted as an alternative offer where a space offers a better option than the original space or the destination space.

3. Ease of Transfer ( Transferability )

This transfer facility is interpreted as a condition that can be handed over or transferred.

Forms of Spatial Interaction

The form of interaction between spaces is very diverse. Launching from various sites on the internet , following forms of interaction between spaces.

1. Population Mobility

Population mobility is a form of interaction between spaces in the form of movement and movement of people from one space to another. For example urbanization, immigration, transmigration, travel to work, travel to tourist attractions, and others.

Urbanization is the result of forms of interaction between spaces. Not only that, other impacts such as the development of growth centers, changes in the orientation of livelihoods, and changes in land use.

2. Communication

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), communication is defined as the sending and receiving of messages or news between two or more people so that the intended message can be understood; relationship; contact; relationship.

Communication is a form of interaction between spaces through the transfer of ideas, ideas, information, vision, mission, ideals, and the like both directly and indirectly. For example watching news shows, watching television shows, reading books, surfing the internet, etc.

3. Transportation

Transportation is a form of interaction between spaces through the movement of goods from one place to another. Such as the transportation of goods, trade, and others. Each form of interaction between the spaces has an impact on each life.

Those impacts that have a great chance will mutually influence the interaction between the space and living beings and inanimate objects in it.

Interaction between spaces that occurs in the form of the transfer of goods or energy requires transportation. Several different means of transportation ranging from private vehicles or public transportation.

For example online ojek , bus, taxi, train, electric rail car (KRL), mass rapid transit (MRT), light rail transit (LRT), and others. Means of transportation is a way to move within a city or across a nearby city.

Impact of Spatial Interaction

The existence of interaction between spaces has an impact on human life. A simple example is the impact of urbanization that makes cities more crowded and densely populated. Launching from the Zenius.net site, the following is the impact of the interaction between spaces.

1. Development of Growth Centers

Population mobility from villages to big cities or urbanization causes the development of growth centers. For example, the Hollywood district in Los Angeles, United States.

Since the beginning, people who aspire to be actors/actresses or film production teams will definitely come to Los Angeles, which is famous for its Hollywood district. Because of this, Los Angeles became the center of the growth of the world film industry.

The same thing happened in Indonesia. Many people flock to Jakarta to complain. This causes Jakarta to become the center of economic growth in Indonesia.


2. Land Use Change

Population density due to population density due to urbanization has an impact on the difficulty of finding a place to live. This causes the transfer of land functions. For example, a piece of land previously used as agricultural or residential land was converted into office or residential land.

3. Change in Livelihood Orientation

In ancient times, human work was quite simple and depended on nature. For example, farmers, fishermen, traders, etc. However, as time goes by, human jobs become diverse, such as office workers, civil servants, content creators, and so on.

4. Changes in Population Composition

Migration carried out by the population can have an impact on the change in the composition of the population in the destination province. For example, region A was full of Muslims. However, because region A is often the destination of migration, it is possible that region A is no longer populated by Muslims only, it could be more diverse with the arrival of Hindus or Catholics.

However, this does not only apply to religion. Tribe or race is also included in it.

5. Development of Facilities and Infrastructure

Toll roads began to be built and connect most of the cities on the island of Java. With the existence of tolls, road users will be able to cut mileage and save fuel.

Not only that, stations, airports, ports, and terminals continue to improve their quality. Such as improving cleanliness, facilities, and services. Not only that, even ordering tickets can be done easily through the application. No need to queue at the counter.

6. Socio-Cultural Changes

When there is interaction between spaces, then indirectly there is also social interaction between individuals in it. Like natives and immigrants. This can trigger acculturation or cultural assimilation based on differences in norms and values ​​held by each group.

Example of Spatial Interaction Question

Here is an example of a question about the interaction between spaces that is plated from the Zenius.net site.

Pay attention to the statements below!

(1) Iqbal and his family traveled from Jakarta to Surabaya.

(2) Indonesia imports wheat from Ukraine.

(3) Dilan sent a package from Boyolali to Milea’s house in Bandung.

(4) Rudi plays chess with his younger brother.

The form of interaction between spaces is shown by the statement number…

a. (1), (2), and (3)

b. (1) and (3)

c. (2) and (4)

d. (4) only

e. Everything is wrong


From the four existing statements, activities involving interaction between spaces are number A. (1), (2), and (3). While number (4) does not involve two spaces so it cannot be said that there is interaction between spaces.