Understanding Immunization: Purpose and Types

Meaning of Immunization – For parents, they must be familiar with what is called immunization. This immunization is important to give to children, especially for those who are not yet five years old. Immunization can be done at health clinics, hospitals, and even posyandu. Immunizations given through posyandu are usually free or not charged, so parents should not miss this opportunity so that the toddler can grow up healthy.

By giving immunization, the parents have protected the child from various diseases, so that the child is healthy and can grow to the maximum. Giving immunization to toddlers is not for no reason, toddlers have an immune condition that is not yet strong, so in order to avoid various diseases they are given immunization. Immunization itself is mandatory and some are recommended or additional immunizations.

However, not a few also think that this immunization is not very important. Assumptions like this are unfortunate because they can make the health of children under five vulnerable to disease and their growth becomes less than optimal. Therefore, those assumptions should be eliminated by socializing to the parents.

Knowledge about the importance of immunization needs to be disseminated to the entire community, from teenagers to the elderly. Not only knowledge, but the benefits of immunization also need to be spread. This should be done so that the community thinks that immunization is an important activity to do.

Well, this article is suitable for you to read if you want to know more about immunization. So, don’t wait and read this article to the end, Reader.

Definition of Immunization

As we know that the human body must have immunity to prevent the entry of viruses or diseases into the body. Every human has a different immune condition. The body’s immune system is known as the term immunity which means protection to avoid various diseases. The immune system is what every human being needs to take care of, if the body’s immune system is weak, then the person will be susceptible to disease.

The body’s immune system consists of various types of cells and substances produced in the body from the result of cooperation with the collective and organized to fight all kinds of germs that enter the body.

So that the body’s immune system is quickly formed, then a person needs immunization. Things like this need to be done to toddlers because at that age the body’s immune system is not yet fully formed. Therefore, many people say that immunization can help the body to form an immune or antibody.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) immunization is immunization or immunity (against disease). While according to the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, immunization is an effort carried out in giving vaccines to a person’s body, so that it can create immunity against certain diseases.

Based on the definition of immunization from KBBI and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, it can be said that immunization is a way of giving germs with the aim of making the body’s immune system immune and not easily affected by diseases, especially infectious diseases.

Immunization itself is divided into two, namely active immunization and passive immunization. Active immunization is a way of giving germs that have been weakened or turned off with the aim of making the body respond, thus creating its own antibodies. meanwhile, passive immunization is a way to strengthen the body’s immune system by injecting a certain amount of antibodies so that the antibodies become strong.

Therefore, immunizations can be said to be in the form of serum or injected into the body and there are also immunizations that are put into the mouth. Immunizations that are serum or injected, such as measles, BCG, and DPT immunizations. Meanwhile, immunizations that are administered orally, such as polio immunization.

Immunization services specifically for children under five can usually be obtained at Posyandu, Puskesmas, Government Hospitals, Maternity Hospitals, etc. In fact, the government has made a recommendation to give immunizations that must be given when the child is still a toddler, such as BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerrine) , DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) , Polio, Measles, and Hepatitis B immunization.

Purpose of Immunization

  1. Preventing a person from contracting diseases that are contagious and harmful to the body.
  2. Increase immunity, especially for toddlers whose immune system is not well formed.
  3. Making the growth of a child to the maximum that can make the family happy.
  4. Giving a sense of security to the community, especially children with a good immune system.
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Type of Immunization 

After knowing the meaning of immunization, now we know about the types of immunization. These types of immunization are divided into two, namely mandatory immunization and recommended immunization.

1. Mandatory Immunization

This mandatory immunization is usually given to babies who are still babies so that they have a strong immune system. Mandatory immunizations include:

a. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerrine) immunization

Tuberculosis disease or better known TB is a type of disease that is dangerous enough that our body needs to be given immunity in the form of immunization. This BCG immunization contains a bacterium or Bacillus Calmette Guerrin germ which is then weakened. The germ particles in this immunization are around 50,000 to 1,000,000 particles per dose.

The purpose of giving this type of immunization is to prevent the baby from contracting tuberculosis, so that the baby can grow up healthy. Meanwhile, giving this type of immunization should be done before the child is 2 months old. In addition, do not give repeated immunizations or second immunizations with the same type, because the success rate of repeated immunizations is still doubtful. A good temperature to store this BCG vaccine is around 2 degrees Celsius.

b. DPT Immunization (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)

DPT immunization is often known as 3 in 1 immunization because the vaccine given aims to prevent three diseases at once, namely diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Therefore, this vaccine consists of diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid which are then purified with botella pertussis germ (which has been killed).

This type of vaccine will usually be given to children who are less than 7 years old. In addition, the administration of this vaccine is usually in the form of an injection or serum that is injected into a part of the body, such as the thigh or arm. A good DPT immunization is done three times, namely DPT I immunization at the age of 3 months, DPT II immunization at the age of 4 months, and DPT III immunization at the age of 5 months. In addition, repeat DPT immunization is done one year after the third DPT. This is done so that a child’s immune system will be formed quickly,

. Hepatitis B immunization

Based on what is available, around 33 percent of mothers giving birth have HBsAg with an estimated maternal transmission of 40 percent, especially mothers giving birth in developing countries. HbsAg is an antigen found in the hepatitis B virus. If the mother gives birth when her HbsAg test is positive, then the person has hepatitis B, and can even spread it to others. Therefore, hepatitis B immunization is done as soon as possible after the baby is born.

Hepatitis B immunization is done with the aim of preventing people from getting hepatitis B, especially children under the age of five whose immune system is not yet strong. Hepatitis B immunization, preferably 12 hours after the baby is born, then the second dose is given when the baby is 6 months old. The third dose is given to babies aged 6-18 months. It would be good, when the child is 10-12 years old, it should be given a repeat immunization.

This is done if the mother is not detected as suffering from hepatitis B. If the mother has hepatitis B, the baby should be given 0.5 ml of HBIG before the baby is even one week old.

d. Measles Immunization

Measles immunization contains the measles virus which is then weakened. Therefore, this vaccine should be stored at a temperature of 2-8 degrees Celsius and should not be exposed to direct sunlight because it can kill the measles virus. If the measles virus is dead before being injected, the body’s antibodies to prevent measles cannot be formed.

Measles immunization aims to prevent a person from getting the measles virus and disease. Based on the recommendations of the WHO or the World Health Organization, the provision of measles immunization should be done in babies who are still 9 months old, especially in babies in developing countries. The thing that needs to be noted when the baby has been immunized against measles is a high fever that occurs after 8 to 10 days of vaccination and red spots for 1 to 2 days.

e. Polio Immunization

Polio can be said to be one of the types of diseases that can cause the sufferer to experience physical disorders, so that their growth will not be optimal. Polio immunization is one of the compulsory vaccines given to children. This vaccine contains weakened polio virus, so that when it is put into the child’s body it is not dangerous.

Polio immunization is done 4 times so that the body’s antibodies to prevent polio disease are quickly formed, so that a person can experience growth well. The recommended time to give polio immunization is the interval between the first, second, third, and fourth immunization should not be more than 4 weeks . The vaccine given 4 times is not for no reason, the first and second immunizations aim to form a response from the body. Then the third and fourth immunization aims to increase antibody immunity to the highest level.

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After the fourth polio immunization, it is best to re-immunize. This repeated immunization is done when a person is around 5-6 years old (around the beginning of elementary school) and at the age of 12 (has graduated from elementary school).

2. Additional Immunization

Additional immunization is an immunization that can be done and not done is no problem. This additional immunization is usually given to those who are exposed to disease and have a high risk of death. Here are the additional immunizations you need to know.

a. MMR immunization

MMR immunization is an immunization that aims to provide protection so that a person does not get measles, German measles, and mumps. The thing that needs to be underlined from this vaccine is that it is not dangerous and does not cause autism. MMR immunization, preferably given twice. In the first dose, injected in a child aged 12-15 months. Then the second injection is given to a child at the age of 4-6 years or at 11-13 years.

For children who have allergies to eggs, neomycin antibiotics, and gelatin, it is not recommended to follow this immunization. In addition, a child who has experienced immune disorders caused by cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, steroids, and chemotherapy is also not recommended to follow this immunization.

b. Varicella immunization

Varicella immunization is a wrong immunization that aims to prevent a child from contracting chicken pox. For children who have never had chicken pox, it is best not to forget to follow the varicella immunization. By following this immunization, the chances of contracting chicken pox are very small.

For the administration of the varicella vaccine, this can be done before the child reaches 13 years of age and the dose is given only once. However, for those who are over 13 years old and have not received varicella immunization and have not been exposed to chicken pox, it is best to receive two doses. The first and second doses are only 4-8 weeks apart.

c. HiB immunization

The next additional immunization is the HiB immunization which aims to prevent inflammation of the brain and lungs. Immunization is usually given to babies who are still 2 months, 3 months, and 5 months old. In those three periods, the baby is given different doses of the vaccine according to the level of the injection. Not only that, the injection of this vaccine is done in the thigh muscle.

For some parents, giving this vaccine is accompanied by giving Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus (DPT) immunization and hepatitis B immunization. For parents who have given HiB immunization to their child, there is no need to worry if the child has a fever and red swelling on the part injected body, because this does not last long.

d. Influenza Immunization

Influenza immunization aims to make antibodies in the body so that it is not easily attacked by severe influenza. Influenza is one of the most dangerous diseases because it can make the body’s immunity decrease, and can even cause death. This disease is very easy to attack for those whose immune system is weak enough.

Therefore, this influenza vaccine is highly recommended to be given to adults who are over 65 years old. This needs to be done because at that age, a person’s body resistance has already decreased.

e. Typhoid Immunization

Typhoid immunization is an immunization that aims to reduce a person’s risk of contracting typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is also known as typhus or paratyphoid. In Indonesia itself, the giving of this vaccine has been categorized into an immunization expansion program organized by the government.

Typhoid immunization can be done when a child is 2 years old or older. When our body is injected with this vaccine, usually the person will experience fever, headache, and pain in the part of the body that is injected.

Conclusion

We can take care of the baby’s immunity with immunization, so parents don’t forget to give immunizations to toddlers according to schedule. With a stronger immune system, toddlers will not easily get sick. Even immunization can reduce the number of children who are sick and the number of children who die. In short, don’t delay immunization!